Five lean principles

Lean Six Sigma - Syllabus

Lean Six Sigma – Syllabus

Skill set Lean six sigma

INTRODUCTION

Within the domain of Lean and Six Sigma individuals can be trained and certified at different levels. The levels are listed in the Table below

The LSSA – Lean Six Sigma Academy® was established in September 2009 with the objective to develop an international recognized certification scheme for all Lean and Six Sigma Belt levels. For each level the LSSA Exam Board has developed Skill sets with clear criteria for skills and competences. These Skill sets specify which of the overall Lean and Six Sigma techniques are expected to be included within certain Belt level competencies. T

he LSSA Yellow Belt Skill sets describe the assessment criteria for the theoretical exam. The Yellow Belt certification can be achieved independently. There are no pre-requisites for certification and therefore does not require any prior completion of any other Belt. After completion of the Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt you can subscribe for the Lean Six Sigma Orange or Green Belt scheme.

Lean Six Sigma training is provided by a global network of ‘Accredited Training Organizations’ (ATOs). These ATOs provide training programs that are aligned to the LSSA Skill sets. Examination is provided through the LSSA directly or through APM Group Limited. The exams are open to all. Individuals can apply directly or sign up via one of the ATOs. It is recommended that candidates receive training through an ATO to prepare for certification. Check the LSSA website for an overview of ATOs and the actual exam requirements. On the website you will also find information about how you can claim your Digital badge. Then share your Digital badge on LinkedIn and show that you are active as a Yellow Belt.

THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

The assessment criteria for the theoretical Lean Yellow exam are as follows:

• The theoretical exam consists of 40 multiple choice questions.
• The duration of the exam is 60 minutes.
• The pass mark for the exams is set at 63% (25 marks or more required to pass).
• The exam is Open book, where a maximum of 2 books are allowed.
• A calculator is allowed.
• You must be able to identify yourself with photographic ID.
• There is no practical exam (only for Green and Black Belt certification).

The assessment criteria for the theoretical Lean Six Sigma Yellow exam are as follows:

• The theoretical exam consists of 50 multiple choice questions.
• The duration of the exam is 60 minutes. • The pass mark for the exams is set at 63% (32 marks or more required to pass).
• The exam is Open book, where a maximum of 2 books are allowed.
• A calculator is allowed.
• You must be able to identify yourself with photographic ID. • There is no practical exam (only for Green and Black Belt certification).

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT MATURITY MODEL (CIMM)

CIMM summarizes best practices and techniques of different methodologies in one framework, for different stages of maturity. The CIMM framework describes five consecutive stages: Creating a solid foundation, Creating a continuous improvement culture, Creating stable and predictable processes, Creating capable processes and Creating future-proof processes. Within Lean only the first three levels apply. For Six Sigma all five levels apply.

For each instrumental technique in the CIMM framework, it is possible to indicate the associated desired behavior. The CIMM framework identifies a number of behaviors for each improvement technique, which helps determine whether or not the implementation of the technology in question will be a success and results in a lasting impact.

The following chapters describe the theoretical skill set elements. The structure consists of a number of ‘Units’, ‘Elements’ and ‘Performance Criteria’.

• Unit: The skill set areas are called ‘Unit’. The chapters in the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Units’ described in this skill set.
• Element: Each ‘Unit’ consists of a number of ‘Elements’. The sections ]in each chapter of the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Elements’ in this skill set.
• Performance Criteria: Each ‘Element’ consists of a number of ‘Performance Criteria’ and each ‘Performance Criteria’ has an explanation. These describe the tools, techniques and competencies that are required to be achieved by the Belt. A ‘Cognitive Level’ has been assigned to each ‘Performance Criteria’ according to Bloom’s Taxonomy [Appendix A]

U1. WORLD CLASS PERFORMANCE

The Unit ‘World Class Performance’ reviews the general philosophy of continuous improvement. It discusses the overview of different process improvement methods and the history of the most important methodologies. It also explains why continuous improvement is important.

E1. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Continuous Improvement’ reviews the history, values and principles of the most common process improvement methodologies. Also, the culture within a continuous improvement organization as well as roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

U1.E1.PC1 Continuous Improvement history Remember
Recall the origins of quality management, Kaizen and Lean.
U1.E1.PC2 Continuous Improvement values and principles Understand
Understand that Lean philosophy and principles realize improvements in process lead times and efficiencies. Recall the difference between Top-Down and Bottom-Up approach.
U1.E1.PC3 Continuous Improvement Maturity Model Understand
Understand the different maturity levels of process management as described in the Continuous Improvement Maturity Model.
U1.E1.PC4 Continuous Improvement roles and responsibilities Remember
Recall the various continuous improvement roles and responsibilities.

E2. CUSTOMER VALUE (VOC & CTQ)

The Learning Element ‘Customer first’ reviews customer identification (internal/external), customer requirements and the CTQ-measure.

U1.E2.PC1 Voice of the Customer (VOC) Understand
Understand the Voice of the Customer (VOC). Understand that different customers have different needs, expectations, requirements and desires.

U1.E2.PC2 Critical to Quality (CTQ) Understand
Understand that Voice of the customer requirements need to be translated into CTQ targets and specifications.

U2. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT

The Unit ‘Policy development and deployment’ reviews how policy development and deployment help organizations in defining a continuous improvement strategy and to run efficiently in achieving their objectives.

E1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy development’ explains the importance of a so-called True North and how to develop an operational excellence strategy.

U2.E1.PC1 Vision & True North Understand
Understand the meaning and importance of the organization’s True North. Understand the meaning of Operational Excellence.

E2. POLICY DEPLOYMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy deployment’ is focusing on the execution process of the improvement strategy. Within this element financial and performance metrics will be reviewed.

U2.E2.PC1 Management of change Remember
Recall that an organization’s culture can influence the success of Lean Six Sigma deployment.

U3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The Unit ‘Project Management’ outlines the way improvement projects should be executed. A number of process improvement roadmaps is reviewed. The Unit also reviews project selection.

E1. MANAGING A PROJECT

The Learning Element ‘Managing a project’ reviews how to set up, plan and execute a project.

U3.E1.PC1 Project selection Understand
Understand the process of project selection.

U3.E1.PC2 Project charter Understand
Describe a proper problem statement in relation to customer requirements or complaints.

E2. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT ROADMAPS

The Learning Element ‘Process Improvement Roadmaps’ reviews a number of roadmaps, including PDCA and DMAIC.

U3.E2.PC1 Kaizen roadmap (PDCA) Understand
Understand project management methods that are used at the shop floor for Kaizen initiatives (e.g. PDCA, A3-report).

U3.E2.PC2 Lean Six Sigma Roadmap (DMAIC) Understand
Understand and follow the DMAIC roadmap.

U4. CREATING A SOLID FOUNDATION

The Unit ‘Creating a solid foundation’ reviews how to achieve a solid foundation for further process improvement programs. This foundation consists of a proper and organized work environment and standardized work.

E1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ENVIRONMENT

The Learning Element ‘Professional work environment’ is about good housekeeping and how to set up a proper and safe work environment in a structured manner.

U4.E1.PC1 Organized work environment (5S) Understand
Understand how organizing the work environment, by applying 5S (Sort, Straighten, Shine, standardize, Sustain), will improve safety and moral.

E2. STANDARDIZED WORK

The Learning Element ‘Standardized work’ is about implementing and improving standards and protocols.

U4.E2.PC1 Standard Work Understand
Understand that standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement. Interpret standard operating procedures (SOPs) and one-point-lessons.

E3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Quality Management’ is about developing procedures to identify and detect defects. Also preventing mistakes and avoiding problems is part of this element.

U4.E3.PC1 Quality Management System Understand
Understand quality procedures, the need to be disciplined and to work according procedures.

U5. LEVEL II – CREATING A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CULTURE

The Unit ‘Creating a continuous improvement culture’ reviews how to create a continuous improvement culture at the shop floor. This Unit reviews setting up Kaizen teams. It also reviews a number of problem-solving techniques and tools.

E1. VISUAL MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Visual management’ reviews how to set up a workplace that is organized and self-explaining.

U5.E1.PC1 Visual workplace Apply
Apply elements of Visual Workplace and understand how these can help to control the improved process.

E2. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews how to set targets, and how to organize the work to be done. The Learning Element also reviews how to facilitate improvement teams at the shopfloor that work on Kaizen improvement initiatives and Problem Solving.

U5.E2.PC1 Daily stand-up meetings Understand
Participate in stand-up meetings and Scrum sessions.

U5.E2.PC2 Kaizen events and problem solving Apply
Describe and understand the importance of the Kaizen principles. Participate in Kaizen events and continuous improvement initiatives. Apply root cause analysis and understand the issues involved in identifying a root cause.

E3. BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

The Learning Element ‘Basic quality tools’ reviews techniques to visualize data and guidelines how to facilitate and participate in brainstorm sessions.

U5.E3.PC1 Brainstorm techniques Understand
Understand brainstorm techniques: Affinity diagram, 5-Whys and Ishikawa. Participate in brainstorm sessions.

U5.E3.PC3 Visualization of data Understand
Understand basic quality tools to visualize data: Scatter plot, Pareto chart, Bar chart, Pie chart, Time series plot and Histogram

U6. LEVEL III – CREATING STABLE AND EFFICIENT PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating stable and efficient processes’ reviews how the logistical flow of processes can be improved and made more stable, predictable and efficient. This Unit reviews tools which can be used to visualize and analyze the process flow as well as a number of tools and techniques that can be used to improve efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and agility of processes. All Level III Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

DEFINE
E1. PROCESS MAPPING

The Learning Element ‘Process Mapping’ reviews a number of tools to map and analyze the flow of a process.

U6.E1.PC1 High-level process description Understand
Understand the Spaghetti diagram and SIPOC.

U6.E1.PC2 Process Flow diagram Understand
Understand the importance of process mapping to visualize the flow of activities and decisions within a process.

MEASURE
E2. PERFORMANCE METRICS

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews performance metrics for both logistics as for quality.

U6.E2.PC1 Performance metrics (Time) Remember
Recall performance metrics related to time (e.g. takt time, cycle time and lead time).

U6.E2.PC2 Performance metrics (Quality) Remember
Recall performance metrics related to quality (e.g. Yield and RTY).

E3. BASIC STATISTICS

The Learning Element ‘Basic statistics’ reviews different types of data, measurement scales and data collection tools. Also a set of measures (statistics) that characterizes a given set of data are reviewed.

U6.E3.PC1 Data types and Measurement scales Remember
Recall the different types of data and that there is a difference between counting and measuring.

U6.E3.PC2 Data collection tools Understand
Understand tools for collecting data such as data sheets and check sheets

ANALYZE
E4. VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Analysis’ reviews how to create a Value Stream Map of the current situation.

U6.E4.PC1 Value adding versus Non-value adding Understand
Understand the difference between value adding and non-value adding activities.

IMPROVE
E5. REDUCING MUDA (WASTE)

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muda’ reviews how to identify and eliminate Waste in the organization and its processes.

U6.E5.PC1 Waste identification Apply
Identify and eliminate process Waste (Muda): Overproduction, Waiting, Transport, Overprocessing, Inventory, Movement, Defects and Unused expertise.

E6. REDUCING MURI (OVERBURDEN)

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muri’ reviews how to identify overburden in the organization. This element also reviews how to implement flow and work balancing to reduce overburden.

U6.E6.PC1 Flow Understand
Understand the meaning of Flow.

E7. REDUCING MURA (UNEVENNESS)

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Mura’ reviews how to identify unevenness in the organization and its processes. This element also reviews a number of techniques to reduce unevenness.

U6.E7.PC1 Pull Understand
Understand the meaning of Pull.

CONTROL
E8. PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL

The Learning Element ‘Process and Quality control’ looks at how results that have been achieved in process improvement projects can be sustained. This element reviews the following techniques and principles: First Time Right, Jidoka and Poka Yoke.

U6.E9.PC1 First Time Right (FTR) Understand
Understand the importance of First Time Right principles. Understand the work has to be stopped when there is a quality problem (Jidoka). Identify opportunities to apply Poka Yoke to avoid quality problems.

SIX SIGMA YELLOW BELT SKILL SET

A GUIDELINE FOR TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION

U7. LEVEL IV – CREATING CAPABLE PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating Capable Processes’ focuses on reducing variation in a stable process with the objective to create a process capable of meeting customer requirements. This Unit reviews the application of Six Sigma and statistical tools used to assure a valid and reliable performance measurement system, to collect data and to analyze the performance of processes. Six Sigma focuses on quality breakthrough improvement projects. All Level IV Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

MEASURE
E1. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

The Learning Element ‘Statistical techniques’ reviews a number of metrics that are often used in Six Sigma projects. The element also reviews a number of sampling methods for assuring data accuracy and integrity.

U7.E1.PC1 Variation Understand
Understand the difference between special cause and common cause variation.

U7.E1.PC2 Sampling Understand
Understand it is important to follow systematic data collection. Understand the basic terms of statistics e.g. mean and spread.

E2. DISTRIBUTIONS

The Learning Element ‘Distributions’ reviews a number of continuous and discrete distributions. The element also reviews the central limit theorem and a number of probability concepts.

U7.E2.PC1 Continuous distributions Remember
Recall that many processes are normally distributed.

E3. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 

The Learning Element ‘Measurement Systems’ reviews how to evaluate measurement systems.

U7.E3.PC1 Measurement systems analysis Understand
Understand the importance of reliable measurement systems.

ANALYZE E4.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING & CONFIDENCE INTERVALS

The Learning Element ‘Hypothesis Testing & Confidence Intervals’ reviews test methods that are used to test a hypothesis. This Learning Element also discusses Confidence Intervals that indicate the reliability of test conclusions.

U7.E4.PC1 Hypothesis testing Remember
Recall the basic principles of hypothesis testing.

E5. TESTS FOR MEANS, VARIANCES AND PROPORTIONS

The Learning Element ‘Tests for means, variances and proportions’ reviews the basic principles of hypothesis testing.

U7.E5.PC1 Tests for means Remember
Recall the basic principles of hypothesis testing.

E6. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION

The Learning Element ‘Correlation and Regression’ describes the predictive models using regression techniques to determine the relation between factors on a response.

U7.E6.PC1 Correlation coefficient Remember
Recall the basic principles of correlation.

U7.E6.PC2 Regression analysis Remember
Recall the basic principles of linear regression.

APPENDIX A – BLOOM'S TAXONOMY FOR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

In addition to specifying content, each performance criteria in this skill set also indicates the intended complexity level of the test questions for each topic. These levels are based on ‘Levels of Cognition’ (from Bloom’s Taxonomy – Revised, 2001), and can be used to create learning outcomes for students.

The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom’s Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago. During the nineties, Lorin Anderson a former student of Bloom revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three ‘domains’: Affective, Psychomotor and Cognitive. This Skill set only notices the Cognitive domain. The ‘Levels of Cognition’ are in rank order – from least complex to most complex. The Yellow Belt skill set only uses the levels ‘Remember’ and ‘Understand’.

Remember
Recall or recognize terms, definitions, facts, ideas, materials, patterns, sequences, methods, principles, etc. The LSSA uses the following verb at this level: Recall.

Understand
Read and understand descriptions, communications, reports, tables, diagrams, directions, regulations, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Describe, Follow, Identify, Interpret, Participate, Understand.

Apply
Know when and how to use ideas, procedures, methods, formulas, principles, theories, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Apply, Assess, Assure, Calculate, Convert, Define, Demonstrate, Divide, Eliminate, Empower, Facilitate, Implement, Motivate, Organize, Plan, Prepare, Present, Promote, Propagate, Review, Select, Standardize, Support, Use.

Analyze
Break down information into its constituent parts and recognize their relationship to one another and how they are organized; identify sublevel factors or salient data from a complex scenario. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Analyze, Construct, Deploy, Design, Develop, Distinguish, Evaluate, Lead, Manage, Translate.

Evaluate
Make judgments about the value of proposed ideas, solutions, etc., by comparing the proposal to specific criteria or standards. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

Create
Put parts or elements together in such a way as to reveal a pattern or structure not clearly there before; identify which data or information from a complex set is appropriate to examine further or from which supported conclusions can be drawn. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

Lean & Six Sigma Orange Belt skill set

A guideline for training and certification

INTRODUCTION

The LSSA – Lean Six Sigma Academy® was established in September 2009 with the objective to develop an international recognized certification scheme for all Lean and Six Sigma Belt levels. For each level the LSSA Exam Board has developed Skill sets with clear criteria for skills and competences. These Skill sets specify which of the overall Lean and Six Sigma techniques are expected to be included within certain Belt level competencies.

The LSSA Orange Belt Skill sets describe the assessment criteria for the theoretical exam. The Orange Belt certification can be achieved independently. There are no pre-requisites for certification and therefore does not require any prior completion of any other Belt. After completion of the Lean Six Sigma Orange Belt you can subscribe for the Lean Six Sigma Green Belt scheme.

Lean Six Sigma training is provided by a global network of ‘Accredited Training Organizations’ (ATOs). These ATOs provide training programs that are aligned to the LSSA Skill sets. Examination is provided through the LSSA directly or through APM Group Limited. The exams are open to all. Individuals can apply directly or sign up via one of the ATOs. It is recommended that candidates receive training through an ATO to prepare for certification. Check the LSSA website for an overview of ATOs and the actual exam requirements. On the website you will also find information about how you can claim your Digital badge. Then share your Digital badge on LinkedIn and show that you are active as an Orange Belt.

THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

The assessment criteria for the theoretical exam are as follows:

• The theoretical exam consists of 50 multiple choice questions.
• The duration of the exam is 90 minutes.
• The pass mark for the exams is set at 63% (32 marks or more required to pass).
• The exam is Open book, where a maximum of 2 books are allowed.
• A calculator is allowed.
• You must be able to identify yourself with photographic ID.
• There is no practical exam (only for Green and Black Belt certification).

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT MATURITY MODEL (CIMM)

CIMM summarizes best practices and techniques of different methodologies in one framework, for different stages of maturity. The CIMM framework describes five consecutive stages: Creating a solid foundation, Creating a continuous improvement culture, Creating stable and predictable processes, Creating capable processes and Creating future-proof processes. Within Lean only the first three levels apply. For Six Sigma all five levels apply.

For each instrumental technique in the CIMM framework, it is possible to indicate the associated desired behavior. The CIMM framework identifies a number of behaviors for each improvement technique, which helps determine whether or not the implementation of the technology in question will be a success and results in a lasting impact.

The following chapters describe the theoretical skill set elements. The structure consists of a number of ‘Units’, ‘Elements’ and ‘Performance Criteria’.

Unit: The skill set areas are called ‘Unit’. The chapters in the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Units’ described in this skill set.
Element: Each ‘Unit’ consists of a number of ‘Elements’. The sections ]in each chapter of the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Elements’ in this skill set.
Performance Criteria: Each ‘Element’ consists of a number of ‘Performance Criteria’ and each ‘Performance Criteria’ has an explanation. These describe the tools, techniques and competencies that are required to be achieved by the Belt. A ‘Cognitive Level’ has been assigned to each ‘Performance Criteria’ according to Bloom’s Taxonomy [Appendix A].

U1. WORLD CLASS PERFORMANCE

The Unit ‘World Class Performance’ reviews the general philosophy of continuous improvement. It discusses the overview of different process improvement methods and the history of the most important methodologies. It also explains why continuous improvement is important.

E1. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Continuous Improvement’ reviews the history, values and principles of the most common process improvement methodologies. Also, the culture within a continuous improvement organization as well as roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

U1.E1.PC1 Continuous Improvement history Remember
Recall the origins of quality management, Kaizen, Lean and Six Sigma. U1.E1.PC2 Continuous Improvement values and principles Understand Understand that Lean philosophy and principles realize improvements in process lead times and efficiencies.

U1.E1.PC3 Continuous Improvement Maturity Model Understand
Understand the different maturity levels of process management as described in the Continuous Improvement Maturity Model.

U1.E1.PC4 Continuous Improvement roles and responsibilities Understand Understand the various continuous improvement roles and responsibilities.

E2. CUSTOMER VALUE (VOC & CTQ)

The Learning Element ‘Customer first’ reviews customer identification (internal/external), customer requirements and the CTQ-measure.

U1.E2.PC1 Voice of the Customer (VOC) Understand
Understand the Voice of the Customer (VOC). Understand that different customers have different needs, expectations, requirements and desires.

U1.E2.PC2 Critical to Quality (CTQ) Understand
Understand that Voice of the customer requirements need to be translated into CTQ targets and specifications.

U2. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT

The Unit ‘Policy development and deployment’ reviews how policy development and deployment help organizations in defining a continuous improvement strategy and to run efficiently in achieving their objectives.

E1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy development’ explains the importance of a so-called True North and how to develop an operational excellence strategy.

U2.E1.PC1 Vision & True North Understand
Understand the meaning and importance of the organization’s True North. Understand the meaning of Operational Excellence.

U2.E1.PC2 Transformation roadmap Understand
Understand the meaning of a transition roadmap for implementing continuous improvement.

U2.E1.PC3 Performance and financial metrics Understand
Understand the cost of poor quality (COPQ) metric.

E2. POLICY DEPLOYMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy deployment’ is focusing on the execution process of the improvement strategy. Within this element financial and performance metrics will be reviewed.

U2.E2.PC1 Management of change Remember
Recall that an organization’s culture can influence the success of Lean Six Sigma deployment.

U3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The Unit ‘Project Management’ outlines the way improvement projects should be executed. A number of process improvement roadmaps is reviewed. The Unit also reviews project selection.

E1. MANAGING A PROJECT

The Learning Element ‘Managing a project’ reviews how to set up, plan and execute a project.

U3.E1.PC1 Project selection Understand
Understand the process of project selection.

U3.E1.PC2 Project charter Apply
Prepare a problem statement in relation to customer requirements or complaints.

E2. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT ROADMAPS

The Learning Element ‘Process Improvement Roadmaps’ reviews a number of roadmaps, including PDCA and DMAIC.

U3.E2.PC1 Kaizen roadmap (PDCA) Understand
Understand project management methods that are used at the shop floor for Kaizen initiatives (e.g. PDCA, A3-report).

U3.E2.PC2 Lean Six Sigma Roadmap (DMAIC) Understand
Understand and follow the DMAIC roadmap.

U3.E2.PC3 Problem Solving Process (8D) Understand
Understand and be familiar with the problem-solving process (e.g. 8D approach).

U4. CREATING A SOLID FOUNDATION

The Unit ‘Creating a solid foundation’ reviews how to achieve a solid foundation for further process improvement programs. This foundation consists of a proper and organized work environment and standardized work.

E1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ENVIRONMENT

The Learning Element ‘Professional work environment’ is about good housekeeping and how to set up a proper and safe work environment in a structured manner.

U4.E1.PC1 Organized work environment (5S) Apply
Organize the work environment by applying 5S (Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain). Understand that an organized environment will improve safety and moral.

E2. STANDARDIZED WORK

The Learning Element ‘Standardized work’ is about implementing and improving standards and protocols.

U4.E2.PC1 Standard Work Understand Understand
that standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement. Interpret standard operating procedures (SOPs) and one-point-lessons.

U4.E2.PC2 Training Within Industry Understand
Understand the basic principles of Training Within Industry.

E3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Quality Management’ is about developing procedures to identify and detect defects. Also preventing mistakes and avoiding problems is part of this element.

U4.E3.PC1 Quality Management System Understand
Understand the basic principles of Training Within Industry.

U5. LEVEL II – CREATING A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CULTURE

The Unit ‘Creating a continuous improvement culture’ reviews how to create a continuous improvement culture at the shop floor. This Unit reviews setting up Kaizen teams. It also reviews a number of problem-solving techniques and tools.

E1. VISUAL MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Visual management’ reviews how to set up a workplace that is organized and self-explaining.

U5.E1.PC1 Visual workplace Apply
Apply elements of Visual Workplace and understand how these can help to control the improved process.

E2. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews how to set targets, and how to organize the work to be done. The Learning Element also reviews how to facilitate improvement teams at the shopfloor that work on Kaizen improvement initiatives and Problem Solving.

U5.E2.PC1 Daily stand-up meetings Apply
Participate in stand-up meetings and Scrum sessions.

U5.E2.PC2 Kaizen events and problem solving Apply
Describe and understand the importance of the Kaizen principles. Participate in Kaizen events and continuous improvement initiatives. Apply root cause analysis and understand the issues involved in identifying a root cause.

E3. BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

The Learning Element ‘Basic quality tools’ reviews techniques to visualize data and guidelines how to facilitate and participate in brainstorm sessions.

U5.E3.PC1 Brainstorm techniques Apply
Apply brainstorm techniques: affinity diagram, 5-Why’s and Ishikawa.

U5.E3.PC2 Visualization of data Apply
Apply basic quality tools to visualize data: Scatter plot, Pareto chart, Bar chart, Pie chart, Time Series Plot, Histogram and Box plot.

U6. LEVEL III – CREATING STABLE AND EFFICIENT PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating stable and efficient processes’ reviews how the logistical flow of processes can be improved and made more stable, predictable and efficient. This Unit reviews tools which can be used to visualize and analyze the process flow as well as a number of tools and techniques that can be used to improve efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and agility of processes. All Level III Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

DEFINE
E1. PROCESS MAPPING

The Learning Element ‘Process Mapping’ reviews a number of tools to map and analyze the flow of a process.

U6.E1.PC1 High-level process description Understand
Participate by identifying input and output process variables and be familiar with SIPOC technique.

U6.E1.PC2 Process Flow diagram Understand
Participate in process mapping initiatives to visualize the flow of activities and decisions within a process.

MEASURE
E2. PERFORMANCE METRICS

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews performance metrics for both logistics as for quality.

U6.E2.PC1 Performance metrics (Time) Understand
Understand performance metrics related to time (e.g. takt time, cycle time, lead time, queue time, WIP, yield and OEE). Understand Little’s law.

U6.E2.PC2 Performance metrics (Quality) Understand
Understand performance metrics related to quality (e.g. PPM, DPMO, DPU and RTY). Understand the difference between a defect and a defective.

E3. BASIC STATISTICS

The Learning Element ‘Basic statistics’ reviews different types of data, measurement scales and data collection tools. Also a set of measures (statistics) that characterizes a given set of data are reviewed.

U6.E3.PC1 Data types and Measurement scales Understand
Understand the difference between quantitative and qualitative data. Understand the difference between continuous (variables) and discrete (attributes) data.

U6.E3.PC2 Data collection tools Apply
Apply tools for collecting data such as data sheets and check sheets.

U6.E3.PC3 Descriptive statistics Understand
Understand the basic terms of statistics e.g. proportion, mean, standard deviation and range.

ANALYZE
E4. VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Analysis’ reviews how to create a Value Stream Map of the current situation.

U6.E4.PC1 Value adding versus Non-value adding Understand
Understand the difference between value adding and non-value adding activities.

U6.E4.PC2 Value Stream Mapping (Current State) Understand
Understand that Value Stream Mapping is a technique for identifying waste and nonvalue adding activities.

IMPROVE
E5. REDUCING MUDA (WASTE)

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muda’ reviews how to identify and eliminate Waste in the organization and its processes.

U6.E5.PC1 Waste identification Apply
Identify and eliminate process Waste (Muda): Overproduction, Waiting, Transport, Overprocessing, Inventory, Movement, Defects and Unused expertise.

E6. REDUCING MURI (OVERBURDEN)

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muri’ reviews how to identify overburden in the organization. This element also reviews how to implement flow and work balancing to reduce overburden.

U6.E6.PC1 Flow Understand
Understand the meaning of Flow.

U6.E6.PC2 Work balancing Understand
Understand the meaning of Work balancing.

E7. REDUCING MURA (UNEVENNESS)

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Mura’ reviews how to identify unevenness in the organization and its processes. This element also reviews a number of techniques to reduce unevenness.

U6.E7.PC1 Pull Understand
Understand the meaning of Pull.

U6.E7.PC2 Volume and Type leveling Understand
Understand basic principles of volume leveling, type leveling and one piece flow.

E8. VALUE STREAM IMPROVEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Improvement’ reviews how the techniques and tools that reduce Muda, Muri and Mura can be applied in constructing a Future State Value Stream Map.

U6.E8.PC1 Value Stream Mapping (Future State) Understand
Understand the difference between current state and future state Value Stream Mapping.

CONTROL
E9. PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL

The Learning Element ‘Process and Quality control’ looks at how results that have been achieved in process improvement projects can be sustained. This element reviews the following techniques and principles: Process FMEA, Control plan, Jidoka and Poka Yoke.

U6.E9.PC1 First Time Right (FTR) Understand
Understand the importance of First Time Right principles. Understand the work has to be stopped when there is a quality problem (Jidoka). Identify opportunities to apply Poka Yoke to avoid quality problems.

U6.E9.PC2 Process FMEA (pFMEA) Understand
Understand the purpose and elements of Process FMEA, including the risk priority number (RPN) and describe FMEA results for processes.

U6.E9.PC3 Control plan Understand
Participate in developing a control plan to document and hold gains and assist in implementing controls and monitoring systems.

E10. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM)

The Learning Element ‘Total Productive Maintenance’ reviews the coherence between reliable systems and equipment and continuous improvement.

U6.E10.PC1 TPM principles Understand
Understand the eight pillars of TPM and understand how it can be used within process improvement.

SIX SIGMA ORANGE BELT SKILL SET

A GUIDELINE FOR TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION

U7. LEVEL IV – CREATING CAPABLE PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating Capable Processes’ focuses on reducing variation in a stable process with the objective to create a process capable of meeting customer requirements. This Unit reviews the application of Six Sigma and statistical tools used to assure a valid and reliable performance measurement system, to collect data and to analyze the performance of processes. Six Sigma focuses on quality breakthrough improvement projects. All Level IV Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

MEASURE
E1. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

The Learning Element ‘Statistical techniques’ reviews a number of metrics that are often used in Six Sigma projects. The element also reviews a number of sampling methods for assuring data accuracy and integrity.

U7.E1.PC1 Variation Understand
Understand the difference between special cause and common cause variation.

U7.E1.PC2 Sampling Understand
Understand it is important to follow systematic data collection. Understand the basic terms of statistics e.g. mean and spread.

E2. DISTRIBUTIONS

The Learning Element ‘Distributions’ reviews a number of continuous and discrete distributions. The element also reviews the central limit theorem and a number of probability concepts.

U7.E2.PC1 Continuous distributions Understand
Understand and interpret Normal distribution.

E3. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

The Learning Element ‘Measurement Systems’ reviews how to evaluate measurement systems.

U7.E3.PC1 Measurement systems analysis Understand
Understand the basic principles of performing a Measurement System analysis. Understand the difference between repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) and the meaning of the number of distinct categories.

ANALYZE
E4. HYPOTHESIS TESTING & CONFIDENCE INTERVALS

The Learning Element ‘Tests for means, variances and proportions’ reviews the basic principles of hypothesis testing.

U7.E4.PC1 Hypothesis testing Understand
Under the basic principles of hypothesis testing.

U7.E4.PC2 Confidence intervals Understand
Understand the basic principles of confidence intervals.

E5. TESTS FOR MEANS, VARIANCES AND PROPORTIONS

The Learning Element ‘Tests for means, variances and proportions’ reviews the most common hypothesis tests to investigate the difference between population means (μ).

U7.E5.PC1 Tests for means Understand
Understand the basic principles of hypothesis testing.

E6. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION

The Learning Element ‘Correlation and Regression’ describes the predictive models using regression techniques to determine the relation between factors on a response.

U7.E6.PC1 Correlation coefficient Understand
Interpret the correlation coefficient.

U7.E6.PC2 Regression analysis Apply
Apply linear regression to understand the relationship between factors and response

E7. PROCESS CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE

The Learning Element ‘Process Capability and Performance’ explains process capability and performance in relation to specification limits.

U7.E7.PC1 Process Capability (Cpk) Understand
Understand basic principles of process capability studies. Understand the importance of stability in process capability studies.

U7.E7.PC2 Short-term and long-term capability Understand
Understand the difference between long-term and short-term capability.

IMPROVE
E8. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE)

The Learning Element ‘Design of Experiments’ reviews efficient ways of experimenting. Design of Experiments examines the influence of factors and interactions on a process.

U7.E8.PC1 Principles and terminology Understand
Understand the importance of efficient ways of experimenting.

CONTROL
E9. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)

The Learning Element ‘Statistical Process Control’ explains the controls methods used to identify outof-control situations and deviations over time. Different types of SPC charts are reviewed.

U7.E9.PC1 Control charts Understand
Understand the usefulness of control charts such as Xbar-R.

APPENDIX A – BLOOM'S TAXONOMY FOR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

In addition to specifying content, each performance criteria in this skill set also indicates the intended complexity level of the test questions for each topic. These levels are based on ‘Levels of Cognition’ (from Bloom’s Taxonomy – Revised, 2001), and can be used to create learning outcomes for students.

The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom’s Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago. During the nineties, Lorin Anderson a former student of Bloom revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three ‘domains’: Affective, Psychomotor and Cognitive. This Skill set only notices the Cognitive domain. The ‘Levels of Cognition’ are in rank order – from least complex to most complex. The Orange Belt skill set only uses the levels ‘Remember’, ‘Understand’ and ‘Apply.

Remember
Recall or recognize terms, definitions, facts, ideas, materials, patterns, sequences, methods, principles, etc. The LSSA uses the following verb at this level: Recall.

Understand
Read and understand descriptions, communications, reports, tables, diagrams, directions, regulations, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Describe, Follow, Identify, Interpret, Participate, Understand.

Apply
Know when and how to use ideas, procedures, methods, formulas, principles, theories, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Apply, Assess, Assure, Calculate, Convert, Define, Demonstrate, Divide, Eliminate, Empower, Facilitate, Implement, Motivate, Organize, Plan, Prepare, Present, Promote, Propagate, Review, Select, Standardize, Support, Use.

Analyze
Break down information into its constituent parts and recognize their relationship to one another and how they are organized; identify sublevel factors or salient data from a complex scenario. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Analyze, Construct, Deploy, Design, Develop, Distinguish, Evaluate, Lead, Manage, Translate.

Evaluate
Make judgments about the value of proposed ideas, solutions, etc., by comparing the proposal to specific criteria or standards. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

Create
Put parts or elements together in such a way as to reveal a pattern or structure not clearly there before; identify which data or information from a complex set is appropriate to examine further or from which supported conclusions can be drawn. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

Lean & Six Sigma Green Belt skill set

A guideline for training and certification

INTRODUCTION

The LSSA – Lean Six Sigma Academy® was established in September 2009 with the objective to develop an international recognized certification scheme for all Lean and Six Sigma Belt levels. For each level the LSSA Exam Board has developed Skill sets with clear criteria for skills and competences.

These Skill sets specify which of the overall Lean and Six Sigma techniques are expected to be included within certain Belt level competencies. The LSSA Green Belt Skill sets describe the assessment criteria for the theoretical and practical exam. Candidates are required to pass both elements to be recognized as a certified Lean or Lean Six Sigma Green Belt. Passing the theoretical exam is a pre-requisite to subscribe for the practical exam. The Green Belt certification can be achieved independently. There are no pre-requisites for certification and therefore does not require any prior completion of any other Belt(s). After completion of the Lean Six Sigma Green Belt you can subscribe for the Lean Six Sigma Black Belt scheme.

Lean Six Sigma training is provided by a global network of ‘Accredited Training Organizations’ (ATOs). These ATOs provide training programs that are aligned to the LSSA Skill sets. Examination is provided through the LSSA directly or through APM Group Limited. The exams are open to all. Individuals can apply directly or sign up via one of the ATOs. It is recommended that candidates receive training through an ATO to prepare for certification. On the website you will also find information about how you can claim your Digital badge.

THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

The assessment criteria for the theoretical exam are as follows:

• For Lean Green Belt:
o The theoretical exam consists of 40 multiple choice questions.
o The duration of the exam is 120 minutes.
o The pass mark is set at 63% (25 marks or more required to pass).
• For Lean Six Sigma Green Belt:
o The theoretical exam consists of 60 multiple choice questions.
o The duration of the exam is 180 minutes.
o The pass mark is set at 63% (38 marks or more required to pass).
• The exam is Open book, where a maximum of 2 books are allowed.
• A calculator or statistical software (e.g. Minitab) is allowed.
• You must be able to identify yourself with photographic ID.

If you pass you will receive a ‘Partial certificate’ from the LSSA that states you passed the theoretical exam. You will receive the ‘Full certificate’ if you pass the practical assessment within a maximum period of three years after passing the theoretical exam.

PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

The assessment criteria for the practical part include the submission of two practical projects that meet the following criteria:

• For Lean Green Belt: one successful project at CIMM level-III (or higher).
• For Lean Six Sigma Green Belt: one successful project at CIMM level-IV or higher.
• The project should have a significant impact to the organization (e.g. a financial impact of €20,000,- or a relevant CTQ has substantially been improved).
• The project must follow the DMAIC or DMADV roadmap.
• The templates for submitting the project can be downloaded from the LSSA website (max. of 25 pages).
• The project should be signed off by the Champion to declare that the project has been carried out professionally and that objectives have been achieved and sustainable.
• A single Green Belt can submit the project for certification in its role of project manager.
• The project must be submitted within three years after passing the theoretical examination.

The project will be assessed by a Master Black Belt, assigned by the LSSA. The criterion listed in Appendix B will be applied. It is advisable to use these criteria during your project. It is additionally strongly advised that the submission is also checked by an internal (Master) Black Belt or coach.

• A ‘Pass’ result will be awarded when all criteria are addressed within the submission and are deemed to be ‘Correct’ or ‘Not Applicable’.
• The submission must contain a justification of any criteria that is claimed to be ‘Not Applicable’.

The result of the practical assessment will be either Pass or Fail. No score will be given. In the event of a ‘Fail’ result, brief guidance will be given on those criteria that are deemed ‘Missing’ or ‘Incorrect’. Subsequently, a single retake resubmission is allowable.

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT MATURITY MODEL (CIMM)

CIMM summarizes best practices and techniques of different methodologies in one framework, for different stages of maturity. The CIMM framework describes five consecutive stages: Creating a solid foundation, Creating a continuous improvement culture, Creating stable and predictable processes, Creating capable processes and Creating future-proof processes. Within Lean only the first three levels apply.

For Six Sigma all five levels apply. For each instrumental technique in the CIMM framework, it is possible to indicate the associated desired behavior. The CIMM framework identifies a number of behaviors for each improvement technique, which helps determine whether or not the implementation of the technology in question will be a success and results in a lasting impact.

The following chapters describe the theoretical skill set elements. The structure consists of a number of ‘Units’, ‘Elements’ and ‘Performance Criteria’.

• Unit: The skill set areas are called ‘Unit’. The chapters in the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Units’ described in this skill set.
• Element: Each ‘Unit’ consists of a number of ‘Elements’. The sections ]in each chapter of the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Elements’ in this skill set.
• Performance Criteria: Each ‘Element’ consists of a number of ‘Performance Criteria’ and each ‘Performance Criteria’ has an explanation. These describe the tools, techniques and competencies that are required to be achieved by the Belt. A ‘Cognitive Level’ has been assigned to each ‘Performance Criteria’ according to Bloom’s Taxonomy [Appendix A].

Attendees that are preparing for Lean Green Belt certification should a able to measure up to the first six units (U1. till U6.). Attendees that are preparing for Lean Six Sigma Green Belt certification should a able to measure up to the seventh unit (U1. till U7.).

U1. WORLD CLASS PERFORMANCE

The Unit ‘World Class Performance’ reviews the general philosophy of continuous improvement. It discusses the overview of different process improvement methods and the history of the most important methodologies. It also explains why continuous improvement is important.

E1. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Continuous Improvement’ reviews the history, values and principles of the most common process improvement methodologies. Also, the culture within a continuous improvement organization as well as roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

U1.E1.PC1 Continuous Improvement history Understand
Understand the origins of quality management, TPM, Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma and Agile.

U1.E1.PC2 Continuous Improvement values and principles Apply
Propagate the Lean Six Sigma philosophy and principles. Understand the impact of the Toyota Production System (TPS) on strategy, quality and production. Facilitate the creation of a continuous improvement culture within the organization.

U1.E1.PC3 Continuous Improvement Maturity Model Apply
Facilitate the development of the organization’s maturity level, which is a combination of developing people and process.

U1.E1.PC4 Continuous Improvement roles and responsibilities Understand Describe the various continuous improvement roles and responsibilities.

E2. CUSTOMER VALUE (VOC & CTQ)

The Learning Element ‘Customer first’ reviews customer identification (internal/external), customer requirements and the CTQ-measure.

U1.E2.PC1 Voice of the Customer (VOC) Apply
Differentiate customer experience into dissatisfied, expected, satisfied and desired quality levels (e.g. KANO model).

U1.E2.PC2 Critical to Quality (CTQ) Apply
Convert the Voice of Customer into external CTQs and internal CTQs. Construct a CTQ flowdown that represents the key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards or specification limits must be met.

U2. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT

The Unit ‘Policy development and deployment’ reviews how policy development and deployment help organizations in defining a continuous improvement strategy and to run efficiently in achieving their objectives.

E1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy development’ explains the importance of a so-called True North and how to develop an operational excellence strategy.

U2.E1.PC1 Vision & True North Understand
Recall and understand the organization’s vision and mission statement. Understand the meaning and importance of the organization’s True North. Describe how Operational Excellence can be applied to processes in different types of enterprises.

U2.E1.PC2 Transformation roadmap Understand
Understand the meaning of a transition roadmap for implementing continuous improvement.

U2.E1.PC3 Performance and financial metrics Apply
Understand that various business processes have various key performance indicators (KPIs). Understand the basics of measurement systems in the organization. Define and use cost of poor quality (COPQ), as a financial metric.

E2. POLICY DEPLOYMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy deployment’ is focusing on the execution process of the improvement strategy. Within this element financial and performance metrics will be reviewed.

U2.E2.PC1 Management of change Understand
Understand breakthrough projects can have an impact on process owners, internal and external customers and other stakeholders. Participate in developing a stakeholder analysis.

E3. COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT

The Learning Element ‘Competence development’ reviews how to develop those who need to ensure that the strategy is implemented successfully.

U2.E3.PC1 Learning organization Understand
Identify and document lessons learned from all phases of a project. Identify possible improvements and ownership.

U2.E3.PC2 Coaching and intervision Understand
Understand the importance of coaching.

U2.E3.PC3 Effective communication Apply
Use effective and appropriate communication for different situations to overcome barriers to project success.

U3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The Unit ‘Project Management’ outlines the way improvement projects should be executed. A number of process improvement roadmaps is reviewed. The Unit also reviews project selection, team formation, planning and execution.

E1. MANAGING A PROJECT

The Learning Element ‘Managing a project’ reviews how to set up, plan and execute a project.

U3.E1.PC1 Project selection Understand
Understand that project selection needs to be aligned with the strategy of the organization. Participate in the project selection process.

U3.E1.PC2 Project charter Apply
Prepare the project charter in relation to customer requirements and business goals. Define the problem statement, project boundaries (scope), objectives, benefits and measurable targets for the project.

U3.E1.PC3 Project team Understand
Understand the basic principles of team formation and team member selection.

U3.E1.PC4 Project planning Apply
Select and construct time management techniques. Set up team meetings, tollgates and publish agendas and ensure that the proper people and resources are available.

U3.E1.PC5 Project execution Apply
Demonstrate project management skills and apply the proper tools and techniques. Ensure that the project will meet its requirements for time, quality and costs.

E2. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT ROADMAPS

The Learning Element ‘Process Improvement Roadmaps’ reviews a number of roadmaps, including PDCA and DMAIC.

U3.E2.PC1 Kaizen roadmap (PDCA) Apply
Apply project management methods that can be used in the workplace for Kaizen initiatives (e.g. PDCA, A3-report).

U3.E2.PC2 Lean Six Sigma Roadmap (DMAIC) Apply
Apply the DMAIC roadmap for Lean (Six Sigma) projects. Select the proper tools to use during the project.

U3.E2.PC3 Problem Solving Process (8D) Apply
Facilitate the problem-solving process (e.g. 8D approach). U3.E2.PC4 Scrum Understand Understand Scrum roles, elements and artifacts.

U4. CREATING A SOLID FOUNDATION

The Unit ‘Creating a solid foundation’ reviews how to achieve a solid foundation for further process improvement programs. This foundation consists of a proper and organized work environment, reliable equipment and standardized work.

E1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ENVIRONMENT

The Learning Element ‘Professional work environment’ is about good housekeeping and how to set up a proper and safe work environment in a structured manner.

U4.E1.PC1 Organized work environment (5S) Apply
Organize the work environment by applying 5S (Sort, Straighten, Shine, standardize, Sustain). Understand that an organized environment will improve safety and moral.

E2. STANDARDIZED WORK

The Learning Element ‘Standardized work’ is about implementing and improving standards and protocols.

U4.E2.PC1 Standard Work Apply
Standardize tasks and processes to establish the foundation for continuous improvement. Prepare documents, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and onepoint-lessons to ensure that the improvements are sustained over time.

U4.E2.PC2 Training within Industry Understand
Understand the basic principles of Training Within Industry.

E3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Quality Management’ is about developing procedures to identify and detect defects. Also preventing mistakes and avoiding problems is part of this element.

U4.E3.PC1 Quality Management System Apply
Propagate the quality management system and procedures. Identify opportunities for improvement.

U5. LEVEL II – CREATING A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CULTURE

The Unit ‘Creating a continuous improvement culture’ reviews how to create a continuous improvement culture at the shop floor. This Unit reviews setting up and facilitate Kaizen teams. It also reviews a number of problem-solving techniques and tools.

E1. VISUAL MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Visual management’ reviews how to set up a workplace that is organized and self-explaining.

U5.E1.PC1 Visual workplace Apply
Apply the elements of Visual Workplace and describe how they can help to control the improved process.

E2. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews how to set targets, and how to organize the work to be done. The Learning Element also reviews how to facilitate improvement teams at the shopfloor that work on Kaizen improvement initiatives and Problem Solving.

U5.E3.PC1 Daily stand-up meetings Apply
Implement and facilitate stand-up meetings to drive continuous improvement initiatives. Understand basic principles of Scrum.

U5.E3.PC2 Kaizen events and problem solving Apply
Describe and propagate the Kaizen principles. Facilitate improvement teams and Kaizen events. Define and apply root cause analysis, recognize the issues involved in identifying a root cause. Apply problem solving process and tools.

E3. BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

The Learning Element ‘Basic quality tools’ reviews techniques to visualize data and guidelines how to facilitate and participate in brainstorm sessions.

U5.E3.PC1 Brainstorm techniques Apply
Apply brainstorm techniques: Affinity diagram, 5-Why’s and Ishikawa.

U5.E3.PC2 Visualization of data Apply
Apply basic quality tools to visualize data: Scatter plot, Pareto chart, Bar chart, Pie chart, Time Series Plot, Histogram and Box plot.

U6. LEVEL III – CREATING STABLE AND EFFICIENT PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating stable and efficient processes’ reviews how the logistical flow of processes can be improved and made more stable, predictable and efficient. This Unit reviews tools which can be used to visualize and analyze the process flow as well as a number of tools and techniques that can be used to improve efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and agility of processes. All Level III Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

DEFINE
E1. PROCESS MAPPING

The Learning Element ‘Process Mapping’ reviews a number of tools to map and analyze the flow of a process.

U6.E1.PC1 High-level process description Apply
Describe key process input variables and key process output variables based on a highlevel process map e.g. SIPOC.

U6.E1.PC2 Process Flow diagram Apply
Apply process mapping to visualize the flow of activities and decisions within a process.

MEASURE
E2. PERFORMANCE METRICS

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews performance metrics for both logistics as for quality.

U6.E2.PC1 Performance metrics (Time) Apply
Calculate performance metrics related to time (e.g. takt time, cycle time, lead time, queue time, WIP and OEE). Apply Little’s Law.

U6.E2.PC2 Performance metrics (Quality) Apply
Calculate performance metrics related to quality (e.g. ppm, DPMO, DPU and RTY). Understand the difference between a defect and a defective.

E3. BASIC STATISTICS

The Learning Element ‘Basic statistics’ reviews different types of data, measurement scales and data collection tools. Also a set of measures (statistics) that characterizes a given set of data are reviewed.

U6.E3.PC1 Data types and Measurement scales Apply
Understand the importance of reliable and accurate data. Describe and review qualitative and quantitative data, continuous (variables) and discrete (attributes) data. Define and interpret nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio measurement scales. Apply Likert scale to convert an ordinal scale into a discrete interval scale.

U6.E3.PC2 Data collection tools Apply
Define and apply tools for collecting data e.g. data sheets, check sheets, concentration diagrams and questionnaires.

U6.E3.PC3 Descriptive statistics Apply
Calculate population parameters and sample statistics: measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, ratios and proportions.

ANALYZE
E4. VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Analysis’ reviews how to create a Value Stream Map of the current situation.

U6.E4.PC1 Value adding versus Non-value adding Apply
Differentiate value adding from non-value adding and necessary activities.

U6.E4.PC2 Value Stream Mapping (Current State) Apply
Apply Value Stream Mapping to construct a Current State Map of the process to identify waste and non-value adding activities.

IMPROVE
E5. REDUCING MUDA (WASTE) 

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muda’ reviews how to identify and eliminate Waste in the organization and its processes.

U6.E5.PC1 Waste identification Apply
Identify and eliminate process Waste (Muda): Overproduction, Waiting, Transport, Overprocessing, Inventory, Movement, Defects and Unused expertise.

E6. REDUCING MURI (OVERBURDEN) 

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muri’ reviews how to identify overburden in the organization. This element also reviews how to implement flow and work balancing to reduce overburden.

U6.E6.PC1 Flow Apply
Describe the importance of Flow for reducing Muri. Implement flow in the organization.

U6.E6.PC2 Work balancing Apply
Describe the importance of Work balancing for reducing Muri. Implement Work balancing.

U6.E6.PC3 Resource management Apply
Describe how competence management supports the reduction of Muri.

E7. REDUCING MURA (UNEVENNESS) 

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Mura’ reviews how to identify unevenness in the organization and its processes. This element also reviews a number of techniques to reduce unevenness.

U6.E7.PC1 Pull Apply
Describe the importance of pull for reducing Mura. Implement pull in the organization by applying Kanban systems.

U6.E7.PC2 Volume and Type leveling Apply
Implement a balanced process flow by both volume leveling, type leveling and one piece flow.

U6.E7.PC3 Quick Change Over (SMED) Apply
Reduce change over times by implementing Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED).

E8. VALUE STREAM IMPROVEMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Improvement’ reviews how the techniques and tools that reduce Muda, Muri and Mura can be applied in constructing a Future State Value Stream Map.

U6.E8.PC1 Value Stream Mapping (Future State) Apply
Define the gap between the current state and the target condition. Define a Future state map using Value Stream Mapping. Apply techniques to reduce Muda, Mura and Muri.

CONTROL
E9. PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL 

The Learning Element ‘Process and Quality control’ looks at how results that have been achieved in process improvement projects can be sustained. This element reviews the following techniques and principles: Process FMEA, Control plan, Jidoka and Poka Yoke.

U6.E9.PC1 First Time Right (FTR) Apply
Propagate the importance of the First Time Right principle. Initiate actions to implement First Time Right. Propagate the line has to be stopped when there is a quality problem (Jidoka). Apply Poka Yoke to avoid quality problems.

U6.E9.PC2 Process FMEA (pFMEA) Apply
Describe the purpose and elements of Process FMEA, including the risk priority number (RPN) and evaluate FMEA results for processes, products and services.

U6.E9.PC3 Control plan Apply
Prepare a control plan to document and hold gains. Define controls and monitoring systems. Transfer of responsibility from the project team to the process owner.

E10. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM)

The Learning Element ‘Total Productive Maintenance’ reviews the coherence between reliable systems and equipment and continuous improvement.

U6.E10.PC1 TPM principles Understand
Understand the eight pillars of TPM and understand how it can be used within process improvement.

U6.E10.PC2 Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) Understand
Interpret the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) performance metric. Review utilization.

SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT SKILL SET

A GUIDELINE FOR TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION

U7. LEVEL IV – CREATING CAPABLE PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating Capable Processes’ focuses on reducing variation in a stable process with the objective to create a process capable of meeting customer requirements. This Unit reviews the application of Six Sigma and statistical tools used to assure a valid and reliable performance measurement system, to collect data and to analyze the performance of processes. Six Sigma focuses on quality breakthrough improvement projects. All Level IV Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

MEASURE
E1. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

The Learning Element ‘Statistical techniques’ reviews a number of metrics that are often used in Six Sigma projects. The element also reviews a number of sampling methods for assuring data accuracy and integrity.

U7.E1.PC1 Variation Apply
Divide special cause and common cause variation.

U7.E1.PC2 Sampling Apply
Apply appropriate sampling methods that ensure representative data e.g. random sampling, stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Calculate power and sample size for common hypothesis tests.

E2. DISTRIBUTIONS

The Learning Element ‘Distributions’ reviews a number of continuous and discrete distributions. The element also reviews the central limit theorem and a number of probability concepts.

U7.E2.PC1 Continuous distributions Understand
Interpret Probability Density Functions and Cumulative Distribution Functions. Interpret continuous distributions: Normal, Weibull, Student’s t, Chi square and F distributions. Interpret normality test (Anderson-Darling; Skewness and Kurtosis).

U7.E2.PC2 Discrete distributions Understand
Interpret discrete distributions: Poisson, Binomial. Understand the central limit theorem.

E3. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 

The Learning Element ‘Measurement Systems’ reviews how to evaluate measurement systems.

U7.E3.PC1 Measurement systems analysis Apply
Define and describe measurement methods for both continuous and discrete data. Apply measurement systems for continuous data. Interpret repeatability and reproducibility (R&R), stability, bias, linearity, precision to tolerance and number of distinct categories.

ANALYZE
E4. HYPOTHESIS TESTING & CONFIDENCE INTERVALS

The Learning Element ‘Hypothesis Testing & Confidence Intervals’ reviews test methods that are used to test a hypothesis. This Learning Element also discusses Confidence Intervals that indicate the reliability of test conclusions.

U7.E4.PC1 Hypothesis testing Apply
Define and interpret the significance level, power, type I and type II errors in statistical tests.

U7.E4.PC2 Confidence Intervals Apply
Define and distinguish between confidence, prediction and tolerance intervals. Distinguish between statistical and practical significance.

E5. TESTS FOR MEANS, VARIANCES AND PROPORTIONS

The Learning Element ‘Tests for means, variances and proportions’ reviews the most common hypothesis tests to investigate the difference between population means (μ); difference in variances (σ); difference in proportion (p) and difference in counts (λ). Also the ANOVA analysis is reviewed.

U7.E5.PC1 Tests for means Apply
Apply hypothesis tests for means.

U7.E5.PC2 Tests for variances Apply
Apply hypothesis tests for variances.

U7.E5.PC3 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Apply
Apply ANOVA. Interpret the results and the main effect and interaction plots.

U7.E5.PC4 Tests for proportions Apply
Apply hypothesis tests for proportions.

U7.E5.PC5 Chi-square tests Apply
Apply Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and Contingency tables

E6. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION 

The Learning Element ‘Correlation and Regression’ describes the predictive models using regression techniques to determine the relation between factors on a response.

U7.E6.PC1 Correlation coefficient Apply
Calculate and interpret the correlation coefficient. Determine its statistical significance (p-value) and recognize the difference between correlation and causation.

U7.E6.PC2 Regression analysis Apply
Apply linear regression analysis. Use the regression model for estimation and prediction. Interpret the residual analysis to validate the model.

IMPROVE
E8. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE)

The Learning Element ‘Design of Experiments’ reviews efficient ways of experimenting. Design of Experiments examines the influence of factors and interactions on a process.

U7.E8.PC1 Principles and terminology Apply
Apply DOE elements: responses, factors, levels, transfer function, run order, randomization, balanced designs, residual error, main effects, interaction effects, replicates and repetitions.

U7.E8.PC2 Two-level full factorial experiments Apply
Design and apply full factorial experiments. Understand the meaning of contrast.

CONTROL
E9. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) 

The Learning Element ‘Statistical Process Control’ explains the controls methods used to identify outof-control situations and deviations over time. Different types of SPC charts are reviewed.

U7.E9.PC1 Control charts Apply
Describe the objectives of SPC. Select and apply control charts: Xbar-R, Xbar-S, individuals and moving range (I-MR), p, np, c and u.

U7.E9.PC2 Tests for special causes Apply
Interpret control charts and differentiate between common and special cause variation using rules for determining statistical control.

APPENDIX A – BLOOM'S TAXONOMY FOR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

In addition to specifying content, each performance criteria in this skill set also indicates the intended complexity level of the test questions for each topic. These levels are based on ‘Levels of Cognition’ (from Bloom’s Taxonomy – Revised, 2001), and can be used to create learning outcomes for students. The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom’s Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago. During the nineties, Lorin Anderson a former student of Bloom revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three ‘domains’: Affective, Psychomotor and Cognitive. This Skill set only notices the Cognitive domain. The ‘Levels of Cognition’ are in rank order – from least complex to most complex. The Green Belt skill set only uses the levels ‘Understand’ and ‘Apply.

Remember
Recall or recognize terms, definitions, facts, ideas, materials, patterns, sequences, methods, principles, etc. The LSSA uses the following verb at this level: Recall.

Understand
Read and understand descriptions, communications, reports, tables, diagrams, directions, regulations, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Describe, Follow, Identify, Interpret, Participate, Understand.

Apply
Know when and how to use ideas, procedures, methods, formulas, principles, theories, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Apply, Assess, Assure, Calculate, Convert, Define, Demonstrate, Divide, Eliminate, Empower, Facilitate, Implement, Motivate, Organize, Plan, Prepare, Present, Promote, Propagate, Review, Select, Standardize, Support, Use.

Analyze
Break down information into its constituent parts and recognize their relationship to one another and how they are organized; identify sublevel factors or salient data from a complex scenario. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Analyze, Construct, Deploy, Design, Develop, Distinguish, Evaluate, Lead, Manage, Translate.

Evaluate
Make judgments about the value of proposed ideas, solutions, etc., by comparing the proposal to specific criteria or standards. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

Create
Put parts or elements together in such a way as to reveal a pattern or structure not clearly there before; identify which data or information from a complex set is appropriate to examine further or from which supported conclusions can be drawn. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

LEAN & SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT SKILL SET

A GUIDELINE FOR TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION

INTRODUCTION

The LSSA – Lean Six Sigma Academy® was established in September 2009 with the objective to develop an international recognized certification scheme for all Lean and Six Sigma Belt levels. For each level the LSSA Exam Board has developed Skill sets with clear criteria for skills and competences. These Skill sets specify which of the overall Lean and Six Sigma techniques are expected to be included within certain Belt level competencies.

The LSSA Black Belt Skill sets describe the assessment criteria for the theoretical and practical exam. Candidates are required to pass both elements to be recognized as a certified Lean or Lean Six Sigma Black Belt. Passing the theoretical exam is a pre-requisite to subscribe for the practical exam. The Black Belt certification can be achieved independently. There are no pre-requisites for certification and therefore does not require any prior completion of any other Belt(s). After completion of the Lean Six Sigma Black Belt you can subscribe for the Master Black Belt scheme.

Lean Six Sigma training is provided by a global network of ‘Accredited Training Organizations’ (ATOs). These ATOs provide training programs that are aligned to the LSSA Skill sets. Examination is provided through the LSSA directly or through APM Group Limited. The exams are open to all. Individuals can apply directly or sign up via one of the ATOs. It is recommended that candidates receive training through an ATO to prepare for certification. On the website you will also find information about how you can claim your Digital badge.

THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

The assessment criteria for the theoretical exam are as follows:

• For Lean Black Belt:
o The theoretical exam consists of 40 multiple choice questions. o The duration of the exam is 120 minutes.
o The pass mark is set at 63% (25 marks or more required to pass). • For Lean Six Sigma Black Belt:
o The theoretical exam consists of 60 multiple choice questions. o The duration of the exam is 180 minutes.
o The pass mark is set at 63% (38 marks or more required to pass).
• The exams are Open book exams, where a maximum of 2 books are allowed.
• A calculator or statistical software (e.g. Minitab) is allowed.
• You must be able to identify yourself with photographic ID. If you pass you will receive a ‘Partial certificate’ from the LSSA that states you passed the theoretical exam. You will receive the ‘Full certificate’ if you pass the practical assessment within a maximum period of three years after passing the theoretical exam.

PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

The assessment criteria for the practical part include the submission of two practical projects that meet the following criteria:

• For Lean Black Belt: two successful projects at CIMM level-III (or higher).
• For Lean Six Sigma Black Belt: two successful projects at CIMM level-III and IV or higher.
• The project should have a significant impact to the organization (e.g. a financial impact of €50,000,- or a relevant CTQ has substantially been improved).
• The project must follow the DMAIC or DMADV roadmap.
• The templates for submitting the projects can be downloaded from the LSSA website (max. of 25 pages).
• The projects should be signed off by the Champion to declare that the projects have been carried out professionally and that objectives have been achieved and sustainable.
• A single Black Belt can submit the projects for certification in its role of project manager.
• The project must be submitted within three years after passing the theoretical examination.

The projects will be assessed by a Master Black Belt, assigned by the LSSA. The criterion listed in Appendix B will be applied. It is advisable to use these criteria during your project. It is additionally strongly advised that the submission is also checked by an internal (Master) Black Belt or coach.

• A ‘Pass’ result will be awarded when all criteria are addressed within the submission and are deemed to be ‘Correct’ or ‘Not Applicable’.
• The submission must contain a justification of any criteria that is claimed to be ‘Not Applicable’.

The result of the practical assessment will be either Pass or Fail. No score will be given. In the event of a ‘Fail’ result, brief guidance will be given on those criteria that are deemed ‘Missing’ or ‘Incorrect’. Subsequently, a single retake resubmission is allowable.

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT MATURITY MODEL (CIMM)

CIMM summarizes best practices and techniques of different methodologies in one framework, for different stages of maturity. The CIMM framework describes five consecutive stages: Creating a solid foundation, Creating a continuous improvement culture, Creating stable and predictable processes, Creating capable processes and Creating future-proof processes. Within Lean only the first three levels apply. For Six Sigma all five levels apply.

For each instrumental technique in the CIMM framework, it is possible to indicate the associated desired behavior. The CIMM framework identifies a number of behaviors for each improvement technique, which helps determine whether or not the implementation of the technology in question will be a success and results in a lasting impact.

The following chapters describe the theoretical skill set elements. The structure consists of a number of ‘Units’, ‘Elements’ and ‘Performance Criteria’.

Unit: The skill set areas are called ‘Unit’. The chapters in the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Units’ described in this skill set.
Element: Each ‘Unit’ consists of a number of ‘Elements’. The sections ]in each chapter of the book ‘Climbing the Mountain’ reflect the ‘Elements’ in this skill set.
Performance Criteria: Each ‘Element’ consists of a number of ‘Performance Criteria’ and each ‘Performance Criteria’ has an explanation. These describe the tools, techniques and competencies that are required to be achieved by the Belt. A ‘Cognitive Level’ has been assigned to each ‘Performance Criteria’ according to Bloom’s Taxonomy [Appendix A].

Attendees that are preparing for Lean Black Belt certification should a able to measure up to the first six units (U1. till U6.). Attendees that are preparing for Lean Six Sigma Black Belt certification should a able to measure up to the eighth unit (U1. till U8.).

U1. WORLD CLASS PERFORMANCE

The Unit ‘World Class Performance’ reviews the general philosophy of continuous improvement. It discusses the overview of different process improvement methods and the history of the most important methodologies. It also explains why continuous improvement is important.

E1. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Continuous Improvement’ reviews the history, values and principles of the most common process improvement methodologies. Also, the culture within a continuous improvement organization as well as roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

U1.E1.PC1 Continuous Improvement history Understand
Understand the origins of quality management, TPM, Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma and Agile.

U1.E1.PC2 Continuous Improvement values and principles Analyze
Propagate the Lean Six Sigma philosophy and principles. Deploy a continuous improvement culture within the organization, which represents the collective values, beliefs and principles.

U1.E1.PC3 Continuous Improvement Maturity Model Analyze
Assess and deploy the organization’s maturity level of the organization, which is a combination of developing people and process.

U1.E1.PC4 Continuous Improvement roles and responsibilities Apply
Promote the various continuous improvement roles and responsibilities.

E2. CUSTOMER VALUE (VOC & CTQ)

The Learning Element ‘Customer first’ reviews customer identification (internal/external), customer requirements and the CTQ-measure.

U1.E2.PC1 Voice of the Customer (VOC) Analyze
Prioritize and translate the Voice of the Customer (VOC) requirements into internal specification requirements. Differentiate customer experience into dissatisfied, expected, satisfied and desired quality levels (e.g. KANO model).

U1.E2.PC2 Critical to Quality (CTQ) Analyze
Translate the Voice of Customer into external CTQs and internal CTQs. Construct a CTQ flowdown that represents the key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards or specification limits must be met.

U2. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT

The Unit ‘Policy development and deployment’ reviews how policy development and deployment help organizations in defining a continuous improvement strategy and to run efficiently in achieving their objectives.

E1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT

The Learning Element ‘Policy development’ explains the importance of a so-called True North and how to develop an operational excellence strategy.

U2.E1.PC1 Vision & True North Apply
Describe how Operational Excellence can be applied to processes in different types of enterprises.

U2.E1.PC2 Transformation roadmap Apply
Define a transition roadmap for a continuous improvement policy development and deployment program.

U2.E1.PC3 Performance and financial metrics Analyze
Define and implement a process of business performance management, which includes developing metrics as well as collecting, analyzing and reporting data about the performance of the organization. Evaluate financial measures e.g. cost of poor quality (COPQ), total cost of quality, working capital (WC) and inventory turn ratio (ITR).

E2. POLICY DEPLOYMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Policy deployment’ is focusing on the execution process of the improvement strategy. Within this element financial and performance metrics will be reviewed.

U2.E2.PC1 Management of change Apply
Describe the impact breakthrough projects can have on process owners, internal and external customers and other stakeholders. Facilitate initiatives and apply techniques to manage change and overcome resistance (e.g. Kübler-Ross, stakeholder analysis, Kotter approach).

U2.E2.PC2 Leadership Apply
Propagate long term and meaningful objectives such as sustainability, dignity and creating an inspiring and healthy work environment throughout the organization. Demonstrate team progress in relation to goals, objectives and other metrics that support team success and reward and recognize the team for its accomplishments. Describe and apply techniques that motivate team members and support and sustain their participation and commitment.

U2.E2.PC3 Hoshin Kanri (X-matrix) Apply
Support the organization in the strategic planning process, applying Hoshin Kanri. Understand how Hoshin Kanri forms the link between policy development and policy deployment.

E3. COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT

The Learning Element ‘Competence development’ reviews how to develop those who need to ensure that the strategy is implemented successfully.

U2.E3.PC1 Learning organization Apply
Guide people through the four stages of competence development including lessons learned from former projects.

U2.E3.PC2 Coaching and intervision Apply
Apply coaching and intervision to those involved in continuous improvement (e.g. Toyota Kata).

U2.E3.PC3 Effective communication Apply
Use appropriate communication methods (both within the team and from the team to various stakeholders) to report progress, conduct milestone reviews and support the overall success of the project.

U3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The Unit ‘Project Management’ outlines the way improvement projects should be executed. A number of process improvement roadmaps is reviewed. The Unit also reviews project selection, team formation, planning and execution.

E1. MANAGING A PROJECT

The Learning Element ‘Managing a project’ reviews how to set up, plan and execute a project.

U3.E1.PC1 Project selection Apply
Define project selection criteria. Identify continuous improvement opportunities. Apply project selection techniques to select the projects that contribute to the strategy of the organization.

U3.E1.PC2 Project charter Analyze
Develop the project charter in relation to customer requirements and business goals. Develop and evaluate the problem statement, project boundaries (scope), objectives, benefits and measurable targets for the project. Support Green Belts in developing their project charter.

U3.E1.PC3 Project team Apply
Apply techniques to select team members (e.g. MBTI, Belbin). Facilitate the team through the classic stages of development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.

U3.E1.PC4 Project planning Apply
Select and construct time management techniques. Set up team meetings, tollgates and publish agendas and ensure that the proper people and resources are available. Ensure that the project will meet its requirements for time, quality and costs.

U3.E1.PC5 Project execution Analyze
Manage the project and apply the proper tools and techniques.

E2. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT ROADMAPS 

The Learning Element ‘Process Improvement Roadmaps’ reviews a number of roadmaps, including PDCA and DMAIC.

U3.E2.PC1 Kaizen roadmap (PDCA) Apply
Apply project management methods that can be used in the work place for Kaizen initiatives (e.g. PDCA, A3-report).

U3.E2.PC2 Lean Six Sigma Roadmap (DMAIC) Apply
Apply the DMAIC roadmap for Lean and Six Sigma projects. Select the proper tools to use during the project.

U3.E2.PC3 Problem Solving Process (8D) Apply
Facilitate the problem-solving process (e.g. 8D approach).

U3.E2.PC4 Scrum Apply
Facilitate self-organizing teams and define clear boundaries for self-organizing teams. Propagate Scrum in product development and continuous improvement initiatives.

U3.E2.PC5 Design for Six Sigma roadmap (DMADV) Understand
Describe the DMADV-roadmap for Design for Six Sigma projects.

U4. CREATING A SOLID FOUNDATION

The Unit ‘Creating a solid foundation’ reviews how to achieve a solid foundation for further process improvement programs. This foundation consists of a proper and organized work environment, reliable equipment and standardized work.

E1. PROFESSIONAL WORK ENVIRONMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Professional work environment’ is about good housekeeping and how to set up a proper and safe work environment in a structured manner.

U4.E1.PC1 Organized work environment (5S) Analyze
Develop an organized work environment by applying 5S (Sort, Straighten, Shine, standardize, Sustain). Understand that an organized environment will improve safety and moral.

E2. STANDARDIZED WORK 

The Learning Element ‘Standardized work’ is about implementing and improving standards and protocols.

U4.E2.PC1 Standard Work Apply
Standardize tasks and processes to establish the foundation for continuous improvement. Develop or modify documents, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and one-point-lessons to ensure that the improvements are sustained over time.

U4.E2.PC2 Training within Industry Apply
Implement Training Within Industry principles in the organization.

E3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Quality Management’ is about developing procedures to identify and detect defects. Also preventing mistakes and avoiding problems is part of this element.

U4.E3.PC1 Quality Management System Apply
Propagate the quality management system and procedures. Facilitate the evaluation of processes, including auditing (internal / external) and identification of opportunities for improvement.

U5. LEVEL II – CREATING A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CULTURE

The Unit ‘Creating a continuous improvement culture’ reviews how to create a continuous improvement culture at the shop floor. This Unit reviews setting up and facilitate Kaizen teams. It also reviews a number of problem-solving techniques and tools.

E1. VISUAL MANAGEMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Visual management’ reviews how to set up a workplace that is organized and self-explaining.

U5.E1.PC1 Visual Workplace Analyze
Develop the elements of Visual Workplace and describe how they can help to control the improved process

E2. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews how to set targets, and how to organize the work to be done. The Learning Element also reviews how to facilitate improvement teams at the shopfloor that work on Kaizen improvement initiatives and Problem Solving.

U5.E3.PC1 Daily stand-up meetings Apply
Implement and facilitate stand-up meetings to drive continuous improvement initiatives. Understand basic principles of Scrum.

U5.E3.PC2 Kaizen events and problem solving Analyze
Describe and propagate the Kaizen principles. Empower improvement teams and facilitate Kaizen events. Develop root cause analysis, recognize the issues involved in identifying a root cause. Analyze problems by applying problem solving process and tools.

E3. BASIC QUALITY TOOLS 

The Learning Element ‘Basic quality tools’ reviews techniques to visualize data and guidelines how to facilitate and participate in brainstorm sessions.

U5.E3.PC1 Brainstorm techniques Apply
Apply brainstorm techniques: Affinity diagram, 5-Why’s and Ishikawa.

U5.E3.PC2 Visualization of data Analyze
Apply and analyze the outcome of basic quality tools to visualize data: Scatter plot, Pareto chart, Bar chart, Pie chart, Time Series Plot, Histogram and Box plot.

U6. LEVEL III – CREATING STABLE AND EFFICIENT PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating stable and efficient processes’ reviews how the logistical flow of processes can be improved and made more stable, predictable and efficient. This Unit reviews tools which can be used to visualize and analyze the process flow as well as a number of tools and techniques that can be used to improve efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and agility of processes. All Level III Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

DEFINE
E1. PROCESS MAPPING 

The Learning Element ‘Process Mapping’ reviews a number of tools to map and analyze the flow of a process.

U6.E1.PC1 High-level process description Analyze
Distinguish between key process input variables and key process output variables based on a high-level process map e.g. SIPOC.

U6.E1.PC2 Process Flow diagram Apply
Apply process mapping to visualize the flow of activities and decisions within a process.

MEASURE E2. PERFORMANCE METRICS 

The Learning Element ‘Performance management’ reviews performance metrics for both logistics as for quality.

U6.E2.PC1 Performance metrics (Time) Analyze
Calculate and analyze performance metrics related to time (e.g. takt time, cycle time, lead time, queue time, WIP and OEE). Apply Little’s Law.

U6.E2.PC2 Performance metrics (Quality) Analyze
Distinguish and calculate performance metrics related to quality (e.g. ppm, DPMO, DPU and RTY). Describe the difference between a defect and a defective. Calculate rolled throughput yield for a number of defects.

E3. BASIC STATISTICS

The Learning Element ‘Basic statistics’ reviews different types of data, measurement scales and data collection tools. Also a set of measures (statistics) that characterizes a given set of data are reviewed.

U6.E3.PC1 Data types and Measurement scales Analyze
Propagate the importance of reliable and accurate data. Describe and distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data (continuous and discrete data). Define and analyze nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio measurement scales. Apply Likert scale to convert an ordinal scale into a discrete interval scale.

U6.E3.PC2 Data collection tools Analyze
Define and analyze tools for collecting data e.g. data sheets, check sheets, concentration diagrams and questionnaires.

U6.E3.PC3 Descriptive statistics Apply
Calculate population parameters and sample statistics: measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, ratios and proportions.

ANALYZE
E4. VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS 

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Analysis’ reviews how to create a Value Stream Map of the current situation.

U6.E4.PC1 Value adding versus Non-value adding Analyze
Distinguish value adding from non-value adding and necessary activities.

U6.E4.PC2 Value Stream Mapping (Current State) Apply
Apply Value Stream Mapping to construct a Current State Map of the process to identify waste and non-value adding activities.

U6.E4.PC3 Process Mining Understand
Understand the way process mining can support the analysis of flow within the organization. Recall what product attributes are needed for process mining.

IMPROVE
E5. REDUCING MUDA (WASTE) 

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muda’ reviews how to identify and eliminate Waste in the organization and its processes.

U6.E5.PC1 Waste identification Analyze
Identify and analyze process Waste (Muda): Overproduction, Waiting, Transport, Overprocessing, Inventory, Movement, Defects and Unused expertise.

E6. REDUCING MURI (OVERBURDEN) 

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Muri’ reviews how to identify overburden in the organization. This element also reviews how to implement flow and work balancing to reduce overburden.

U6.E6.PC1 Flow Analyze
Describe the importance of flow for reducing Muri. Develop flow in the organization.

U6.E6.PC2 Work balancing Analyze
Describe the importance of Work balancing for reducing Muri. Develop Work balancing.

U6.E6.PC3 Resource management Apply
Describe how competence management supports the reduction of Muri. Set up and apply a competence management system.

E7. REDUCING MURA (UNEVENNESS) 

The Learning Element ‘Reducing Mura’ reviews how to identify unevenness in the organization and its processes. This element also reviews a number of techniques to reduce unevenness.

U6.E7.PC1 Pull Analyze
Describe the importance of pull for reducing Mura. Develop and implement pull in the organization by applying Kanban systems.

U6.E7.PC2 Volume and Type leveling Apply
Implement a balanced process flow by both volume leveling, type leveling and one piece flow. Differentiate between the different order fulfilment strategies.

U6.E7.PC3 Quick Change Over (SMED) Apply
Reduce change over times by implementing Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED).

E8. VALUE STREAM IMPROVEMENT 

The Learning Element ‘Value Stream Improvement’ reviews how the techniques and tools that reduce Muda, Muri and Mura can be applied in constructing a Future State Value Stream Map.

U6.E8.PC1 Value Stream Mapping (Future State) Analyze
Define the gap between the current state and the target condition. Develop a Future state map using Value Stream Mapping. Apply techniques to reduce Muda, Mura and Muri.

CONTROL
E9. PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL 

The Learning Element ‘Process and Quality control’ looks at how results that have been achieved in process improvement projects can be sustained. This element reviews the following techniques and principles: Process FMEA, Control plan, Jidoka and Poka Yoke.

U6.E9.PC1 First Time Right (FTR) Analyze
Deploy the importance of the First Time Right principle. Implement a culture of stopping to fix problems to get quality right the first time. Empower the work force to stop the line when there is a quality problem (Jidoka). Apply Poka Yoke to prevent quality problems.

U6.E9.PC2 Process FMEA (pFMEA) Apply
Prepare all elements of a Process FMEA, calculate the risk priority number (RPN) and action priority (AP). Review the effect of FMEA results on processes, products and services.

U6.E9.PC3 Control plan Apply
Prepare a control plan to document and hold gains. Define controls and monitoring systems. Transfer of responsibility from the project team to the process owner.

E10. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM)

The Learning Element ‘Total Productive Maintenance’ reviews the coherence between reliable systems and equipment and continuous improvement.

U6.E10.PC1 TPM principles Apply
Describe the eight pillars of TPM and describe how it can be used for process improvement. Apply elements of TPM to control the improved process.

U6.E10.PC2 Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) Apply
Calculate the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) performance metric. Calculate utilization.

SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT SKILL SET

A GUIDELINE FOR TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION

U7. LEVEL IV – CREATING CAPABLE PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating Capable Processes’ focuses on reducing variation in a stable process with the objective to create a process capable of meeting customer requirements. This Unit reviews the application of Six Sigma and statistical tools used to assure a valid and reliable performance measurement system, to collect data and to analyze the performance of processes. Six Sigma focuses on quality breakthrough improvement projects. All Level IV Learning Elements and Performance Criteria follow the DMAIC structure.

MEASURE
E1. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES 

The Learning Element ‘Statistical techniques’ reviews a number of metrics that are often used in Six Sigma projects. The element also reviews a number of sampling methods for assuring data accuracy and integrity.

U7.E1.PC1 Variation Analyze
Evaluate special cause and common cause variation.

U7.E1.PC2 Sampling Analyze
Develop and apply appropriate sampling methods that ensure representative data e.g. random sampling, stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Calculate power and sample size for common hypothesis tests.

E2. DISTRIBUTIONS 

The Learning Element ‘Distributions’ reviews a number of continuous and discrete distributions. The element also reviews the central limit theorem and a number of probability concepts.

U7.E2.PC1 Continuous distributions Apply
Interpret Probability Density Functions and Cumulative Distribution Functions. Apply continuous distributions: Normal, Weibull, Student’s t, Chi square, F-distribution, Lognormal and Exponential distribution. Apply normality test (Anderson-Darling) describe shape parameters (Skewness and Kurtosis).

U7.E2.PC2 Discrete distributions Apply
Apply discrete distributions: Poisson, Binomial. Apply the central limit theorem.

U7.E2.PC3 Data transformation on non-normal data Apply
Identify non-normal data and use Box-Cox or Johnson transformation.

E3. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 

The Learning Element ‘Measurement Systems’ reviews how to evaluate measurement systems.

U7.E3.PC1 Measurement systems analysis Analyze
Define and implement measurement methods for both continuous and discrete data. Analyze measurement systems for continuous data. Interpret repeatability and reproducibility (R&R), stability, bias, linearity, precision to tolerance and number of distinct categories.

U7.E3.PC2 Attributive agreement Analysis Analyze
Analyze measurement systems for qualitative properties. Establish attribute agreement within appraiser, between appraisers and appraisers versus standard.

ANALYZE
E4. HYPOTHESIS TESTING & CONFIDENCE INTERVALS 

The Learning Element ‘Hypothesis Testing & Confidence Intervals’ reviews test methods that are used to test a hypothesis. This Learning Element also discusses Confidence Intervals that indicate the reliability of test conclusions.

U7.E4.PC1 Hypothesis testing Analyze
Define and analyze the significance level, power, type I and type II errors in statistical tests.

U7.E4.PC2 Confidence Intervals Analyze
Calculate confidence, prediction and tolerance intervals. Distinguish between statistical and practical significance.

E5. TESTS FOR MEANS, VARIANCES AND PROPORTIONS 

The Learning Element ‘Tests for means, variances and proportions’ reviews the most common hypothesis tests to investigate the difference between population means (μ); difference in variances (σ); difference in proportion (p) and difference in counts (λ). Also the ANOVA analysis is reviewed.

U7.E5.PC1 Tests for means Apply
Apply and analyze hypothesis tests for means.

U7.E5.PC2 Tests for variances Analyze
Apply and analyze hypothesis tests for variances.

U7.E5.PC3 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Analyze
Apply ANOVA. Analyze the results and the main effect and interaction plots.

U7.E5.PC4 Tests for proportions Analyze
Apply and analyze hypothesis tests for proportions.

U7.E5.PC5 Chi-square tests Analyze
Apply and analyze Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and Contingency tables.

U7.E5.PC6 Non-parametric tests Analyze
Apply and analyze non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis and Mood’s median test.

E6. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION 

The Learning Element ‘Correlation and Regression’ describes the predictive models using regression techniques to determine the relation between factors on a response.

U7.E6.PC1 Correlation coefficient Analyze
Calculate and analyze the correlation coefficient. Determine its statistical significance (p-value) and recognize the difference between correlation and causation.

U7.E6.PC2 Regression analysis Analyze
Apply linear and polynomial regression analysis. Analyze the regression model for estimation and prediction. Interpret the residual analysis to validate the model.

U7.E6.PC3 Multivariate studies Apply
Apply attributes data using (binary) logistic regression to investigate sources of variation.

U7.E6.PC4 Logistic regression analysis Apply
Apply multivariate studies such as principal components and factor analysis.

E7. PROCESS CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE 

The Learning Element ‘Process Capability and Performance’ explains process capability and performance in relation to specification limits.

U7.E7.PC1 Process Capability (Cpk) Analyze
Apply and analyze process capability studies. Develop sampling plans to verify stability. Calculate and analyze Cp and Cpk to assess process capability.

U7.E7.PC2 Short-term and long-term capability Analyze
Describe and use appropriate assumptions and conventions when only short-term data or attributes data are available and when long-term data are available. Analyze the relationship between long-term and short-term capability.

U7.E7.PC3 Process Performance (Ppk) Analyze
Calculate and analyze Pp and Ppk to assess process performance. Interpret the relationship between capability and performance indices.

U7.E6.PC4 Process Capability for attributes data Apply
Calculate the process capability and process sigma level for attribute data.

IMPROVE
E8. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE) 

The Learning Element ‘Design of Experiments’ reviews efficient ways of experimenting. Design of Experiments examines the influence of factors and interactions on a process.

U7.E8.PC1 Principles and terminology Analyze
Design experiments by determining the objective, selecting factors, responses and measurement methods. Apply DOE elements: responses, factors, levels, transfer function, run order, randomization, balanced designs, residual error, main effects, interaction effects, replicates, repetitions, curvature and centerpoints.

U7.E8.PC2 Two-level full factorial experiments Analyze
Design and analyze full factorial experiments. Understand and apply contrast, covariate, blocking.

U7.E8.PC3 Two-level fractional factorial experiments Analyze
Design and analyze fractional factorial experiments and describe how confounding affects their use. Understand and apply alias tables and folding.

U7.E8.PC4 Response Surface Modeling Analyze
Design and analyze Response Surface Models (RSM) such as Box Behnken and Central Composite Designs. Analyze the response surface using path of steepest ascent and apply Evolutionary Operations (EVOP).

CONTROL
E9. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) 

The Learning Element ‘Statistical Process Control’ explains the controls methods used to identify outof-control situations and deviations over time. Different types of SPC charts are reviewed.

U7.E9.PC1 Control charts Analyze
Describe the objectives of SPC. Select and construct the following types of control charts: Xbar-R, Xbar-S, individuals and moving range (I MR), median, p, np, c, u, shortrun SPC and moving average.

U7.E9.PC2 Tests for special causes Analyze
Interpret control charts and distinguish between common and special cause variation using rules for determining statistical control.

U8. LEVEL V - CREATING FUTURE-PROOF PROCESSES

The Unit ‘Creating future-proof processes’ is about applying Lean Six Sigma techniques in the product development process with the objective to design products and services that will perform on a Six Sigma level from the earliest phase.

E1. PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM) 

The Learning Element ‘Product Lifecycle Management’ reviews the entire lifecycle of products from inception, engineering, and manufacturing to service and disposal.

U8.E1.PC1 Product lifecycle Understand
Understand the lifecycle for products from creation, engineering, manufacturing to service and disposal.

U8.E1.PC2 Innovation management Understand
Participate in new product and process development.

E2. DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA 

The Learning Element ‘Design for Six Sigma’ reviews a number of methodologies and techniques that can be applied within Design for Six Sigma, such as Quality Function Deployment, Reliability engineering and Tolerance analysis.

U8.E2.PC1 Design for Excellence (DFX) Understand
Understand the impact of design for excellence and modularization on cost, manufacturability, producibility and maintainability.

U8.E2.PC2 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Understand
Understand that QFD can be applied to translate customer requirements into product performance measures.

U8.E2.PC3 Design FMEA (dFMEA) Understand
Describe key functions of a design, the primary potential failure modes relative to each function and the potential causes of each failure mode. Describe critical parameter management (CPM) and the DMADV roadmap.

U8.E2.PC4 Reliability Understand
Understand that reliability specifications and design tests can be used to demonstrate reliability specifications. Understand basic principles of failure rate function of life time tests.

U8.E2.PC5 Tolerance Analysis Understand
Understand the basic principles of tolerance analysis using worst case, RSS, Monte Carlo and empirical methods.

E3. THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 

The Learning Element ‘The fourth industrial revolution’ reviews the role of continuous improvement methodologies that currently used and the fourth industrial revolution.

U8.E2.PC5 Industry 4.0 Understand
Understand the future of operational management. Describe elements of Industry 4.0.

APPENDIX A – BLOOM'S TAXONOMY FOR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

In addition to specifying content, each performance criteria in this skill set also indicates the intended complexity level of the test questions for each topic. These levels are based on ‘Levels of Cognition’ (from Bloom’s Taxonomy – Revised, 2001), and can be used to create learning outcomes for students.

The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom’s Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago. During the nineties, Lorin Anderson a former student of Bloom revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three ‘domains’: Affective, Psychomotor and Cognitive. This Skill set only notices the Cognitive domain. The ‘Levels of Cognition’ are in rank order – from least complex to most complex. The Black Belt skill set only uses the levels ‘Understand’, ‘Apply and ‘Analyze’.

Remember
Recall or recognize terms, definitions, facts, ideas, materials, patterns, sequences, methods, principles, etc. The LSSA uses the following verb at this level: Recall.

Understand
Read and understand descriptions, communications, reports, tables, diagrams, directions, regulations, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Describe, Follow, Identify, Interpret, Participate, Understand.

Apply
Know when and how to use ideas, procedures, methods, formulas, principles, theories, etc. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Apply, Assess, Assure, Calculate, Convert, Define, Demonstrate, Divide, Eliminate, Empower, Facilitate, Implement, Motivate, Organize, Plan, Prepare, Present, Promote, Propagate, Review, Select, Standardize, Support, Use.

Analyze
Break down information into its constituent parts and recognize their relationship to one another and how they are organized; identify sublevel factors or salient data from a complex scenario. The LSSA uses the following verbs at this level: Analyze, Construct, Deploy, Design, Develop, Distinguish, Evaluate, Lead, Manage, Translate.

Evaluate
Make judgments about the value of proposed ideas, solutions, etc., by comparing the proposal to specific criteria or standards. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets.

Create
Put parts or elements together in such a way as to reveal a pattern or structure not clearly there before; identify which data or information from a complex set is appropriate to examine further or from which supported conclusions can be drawn. The LSSA does not uses this level in their skill sets