Using the TOGAF® 9.1 Framework with the ArchiMate® 3.0 Modeling Language
A White Paper by:
Iver Band, Henk Jonkers, Erik Proper, Dick Quartel, Marc Lankhorst, and Mike Turner
Updated for the ArchiMate 3.0 Specification by Ed Walters
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Using the TOGAF® 9.1 Framework with the ArchiMate® 3.0 Modeling Language
Document No.: W171
Published by The Open Group, January 2017.
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Table of Contents
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This White Paper describes the TOGAF® 9.1 framework and the ArchiMate® 3.0 modeling language, showing at a high level how these two Open Group Standards can be used together. 1 The main observations are:
- The TOGAF framework and the ArchiMate language overlap in their use of viewpoints, and the concept of an underlying common repository of architectural artifacts and models; i.e., they have a firm common foundation.
- The two standards complement each other with respect to the definition of an architecture development process and the definition of an Enterprise Architecture modeling language.
- The ArchiMate 3.0 standard supports modeling of the architectures throughout the phases of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM).
The combined use of the TOGAF framework with the ArchiMate modeling language can support better communication with stakeholders inside and outside organizations, supporting The Open Group vision of Boundaryless Information Flow™.
1 A detailed analysis of using the two standards together is available in the referenced Open Group White Papers on TOGAF® Framework and ArchiMate® Modeling Language Harmonization (W14A, W14B, W14C, and W14D).
The goal of this White Paper is to demonstrate that an integrated approach in support of Enterprise Architecture efforts can result from the combination of two open standards for Enterprise Architecture from The Open Group. The first one, the TOGAF® standard [TOGAF 9.1], has been for more than a decade the world’s leading Enterprise Architecture method. The second one, the ArchiMate 3.0 standard [ArchiMate 3.0], is The Open Group standard for modeling Enterprise Architecture.
Enterprise Architecture has become established in recent years as a powerful component in enterprises’ efforts to define and implement strategy. Whilst there are a number of Enterprise Architecture frameworks available, The Open Group TOGAF standard, currently in Version 9.1, is a widely adopted leader in this field.
The TOGAF standard emphasizes time and again that the description of Enterprise Architecture should be standardized, and within the TOGAF framework a metamodel of relevant concepts (building block types) and relationships is offered. However, the TOGAF standard doesn’t natively provide a modeling notation which allows architects to describe architecture graphically, even though the standard mentions that different modeling notations can be used. Graphical modeling has a long tradition of fruitful use in support of reasoning about business change, hence the ArchiMate modeling notation fulfils a vital and complementary role in supplying a standardized means of modeling Enterprise Architecture and related concerns in this fashion.
- A process (“way of working”) for creating architectures; this may be accompanied by guidelines, techniques, and best practices
- A set or classification of viewpoints
- A language for describing architectures (defining concepts and relationships, but also a notation)
- The concept of a (perhaps virtual) architecture repository, possibly containing predefined architectural artifacts and reference models
Repository, (Reference) Models
The core of the TOGAF standard is a process – the Architecture Development Method (ADM). The standard also describes viewpoints, techniques, and reference models, but not a complete language; the Architecture Content Framework identifies relevant architecture building block types, but it does not constitute a formal modeling language, nor does it offer a notation.
The ArchiMate standard provides a formal modeling language, including a (graphical) notation, and suggests a collection of useful viewpoints. The ArchiMate standard does not say how to “do architecture”, however.
The TOGAF and ArchiMate standards overlap in their use of viewpoints, and the concept of an underlying common repository of architectural artifacts and models; i.e., they have a firm common foundation.
The two standards complement each other with respect to the definition of an architecture development process and the definition of an Enterprise Architecture modeling language.
In this White Paper, we describe how the current versions of the TOGAF and ArchiMate standards can work together.
The TOGAF and ArchiMate standards share a common foundation in their use of the concepts of views, viewpoints, and stakeholders, together with the concept of an underlying common repository of architectural artifacts and models.
For example, the simplified ArchiMate model in Figure 2 shows two stakeholders (the board of directors and its customers) and their concerns, modeled as drivers. Customer satisfaction is a shared concern of both stakeholders. Stakeholder satisfaction can be refined into more detailed concerns; e.g., profit.
The ArchiMate modeling language can be used to model architectures developed using the TOGAF ADM. Figure 3 shows the correspondence between the activities of the ADM phases and the parts of the ArchiMate language.
In addition to improvements in core elements in the Business, Application, and Technology Layers, the ArchiMate 3.0 standard adds several extensions that are relevant to an Enterprise Architecture practice:
- A Physical Layer has been added in Version 3.0 as an extension to the Technology Layer, adding structural elements such as facility, equipment, and material. The Physical Layer re-uses the behavior elements of the Technology Layer.
- The Motivation extension contain the elements that motivate enterprise design and operation. They include, among others, stakeholder, driver, assessment, goal, requirement, and principle.
- The Implementation and Migration extension models the implementation of all aspects of Enterprise Architectures, as well as the migration between generations of implemented architectures. They include work package, deliverable, plateau, and gap.
- The Strategy extension provides modeling support for business strategy and capability-based planning. Elements include capability, resource, and course of action.
A number of examples drawn from the ArchiSurance Case Study follow, illustrating extracts of models that might be developed during a TOGAF ADM cycle.
Principles in the TOGAF standard are established and maintained as part of the Preliminary Phase. This example (Figure 4) shows how principles, their dependencies, and goals can be represented in a graphical way.
In the TOGAF standard, Phase A is concerned with establishing a high-level vision of the target architecture, across all the sub-domains of the Enterprise Architecture. An important part of this will be to establish and model the strategy of the business, and show how the architecture, and possible solutions that realize the architecture, implement strategy.
Example: Strategy View
The Strategy viewpoint allows the Business Architect to model an overview of the courses of action chosen or considered by the enterprise, the capabilities and resources supporting them, the envisaged outcomes, and how these contribute to the organization’s goals and drivers.
Business Architecture models the business-related elements of the Enterprise Architecture. The TOGAF standard mentions that business processes are very important elements, in that they effectively orchestrate the use of all the other elements to create the value allied to the enterprise’s mission. The ArchiMate language is equipped to model the TOGAF Business Architecture graphically. However, the ArchiMate standard proposes a service-orientated architectural style, something that is specified in its core metamodel, as this style promotes maximum flexibility, re-use, and speed of change, at low cost and low risk. Business processes realize business services in this approach, where value is associated with the service.
Example: Business Processes
This example (Figure 6) shows how two business processes could be modeled for a Business Architecture. This example shows the two central business processes of ArchiSurance, with their high-level sub-processes.
TOGAF Phase C covers Application and Data Architecture. These are treated as separate architecture sub- domains in the TOGAF framework, but in the ArchiMate language data is an aspect of every architectural domain.
Example: Application Co-operation
This example (Figure 7) shows how a number of applications co-operate, as well as the main data flows between the applications.
Example: Information Structure
This example (Figure 8) shows how relationships between business objects might be modeled graphically. This is the ArchiMate version of the classic Conceptual Data Model.
A common requirement in Business Architecture is to view the way applications and data support business processes. Figure 9 is an example of a cross-layer view and several cross-layer views could be constructed across different layers, in accordance with stakeholders’ requirements.
TOGAF Phase D deals with Technology Architecture, which shows how information technology can be deployed to realize the applications and data requirements defined in Phase C. The ArchiMate standard has a separate layer for Technology Architecture, in which technology such as devices, systems software, DBMS, and communications paths can be represented.
This example (Figure 10) shows the main infrastructure components for an enterprise, grouped by location and department. Also the networks that connect the different devices, and the (application) artifacts deployed on the devices, are shown.
The ArchiMate 3.0 Specification now has a new set of Physical elements and their relationships that are based on the Technology Layer. These elements can be used to model physical things like machinery and facilities; a useful example is presented below in Figure 11.
The TOGAF ADM continues with Phases E and F, which deal with choosing solutions and planning the implementation and migration of the architecture from the baseline to the target state. The ArchiMate standard has the Implementation and Migration extension to the core language, so that this part of the ADM can be described too (Figure 12).
Example: Migration View
The Architecture Content Framework within the TOGAF framework identifies the main types of architecture building blocks that are relevant in the context of the ADM. The ArchiMate modeling language offers precisely defined concepts, including a graphical notation, to represent many of these building blocks.
The Architecture Content Metamodel within the TOGAF framework shows the principal relationships between architecture building block types. The ArchiMate modeling language offers a rich set of relationships that reflect many of these TOGAF relationships.
The detailed mapping of the TOGAF and ArchiMate metamodels is the subject of another set of publications that has been published by The Open Group as part of a harmonization effort. This set of publications is aimed at providing more detailed guidance regarding how the two standards can be used together. For further information, references to those White Papers can be found in the References section at the end of this White Paper.
The Architecture Continuum, part of the TOGAF Enterprise Continuum, provides a way to classify architectures based on how generic/specific they are (ranging from very general Foundation Architectures, through Common Systems Architectures and Industry Architectures, to Organization-Specific Architectures).
The TOGAF standard provides two reference models: the Technical Reference Model (TRM), part of the Foundation Architecture, and the Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model (III-RM), a Common Systems Architecture, which can be used as an initial population of the Architecture Continuum. These reference models (or any other reference models that may exist, for that matter) may be expressed and stored using the ArchiMate language. An advantage of this is that it facilitates the re-use of elements from these reference models (e.g., services as defined by the TRM) in the architectures to be developed, especially if these architectures are also modeled with the ArchiMate language.
The TOGAF framework and the ArchiMate language overlap in their use of viewpoints, and the concept of an underlying common repository of architectural artifacts and models. Therefore, they have a firm common foundation. The two standards complement each other with respect to the definition of an Enterprise Architecture development process (the TOGAF standard) and the definition of an Enterprise Architecture modeling language (the ArchiMate standard). The ArchiMate 3.0 Specification supports modeling many of the architectural building blocks encountered throughout the phases of the TOGAF ADM.
(Please note that the links below are good at the time of writing but cannot be guaranteed for the future.) The following documents are referenced in this White Paper:
Learn more about Archimate 3.0 at The Open Group Amsterdam 23-10
- ArchiMate® 3.0 Specification, Open Group Standard, C13L, ISBN: 1-937218-43-0, December 2013, published by The Open Group; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/c13l.htm. Also available online at: pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate2-doc.
- ArchiSurance Case Study, Version 2 (Y163), published by The Open Group, November 2016; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/y163.htm.
- TOGAF® Framework and ArchiMate® Modeling Language Harmonization: Glossaries Comparison, White Paper (W14A), published by The Open Group, August 2014; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w14a.htm.
- TOGAF® Framework and ArchiMate® Modeling Language Harmonization: Viewpoints Mapping, White Paper (W14B), published by The Open Group, August 2014; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w14b.htm.
- TOGAF® Framework and ArchiMate® Modeling Language Harmonization: A Practitioner’s Guide to Using the TOGAF® Framework and the ArchiMate® Language, White Paper (W14C), published by The Open Group, December 2014; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w14c.htm.
- TOGAF® Framework and ArchiMate® Modeling Language Harmonization: Content Metamodel Harmonization: Entitles and Relationships, White Paper (W14D), published by The Open Group, December 2014; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w14d.htm.
- TOGAF® Version 9.1, Open Group Standard, G116, December 2011, published by The Open Group; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/g116.htm. Also available online at: www.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch.The following documents are recommended as further reading:
- A Framework for Information Systems Architecture, J.A. Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1987, pp. 267-292.
- Concepts for Modeling Enterprise Architectures, H. Jonkers, M.M. Lankhorst, R. van Buuren, S. Hoppenbrouwers, M. Bonsangue, L. van der Torre, International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems (IJCIS), Special Issue on Architecture in IT, 2004:13(3):257–288.
- Enterprise Architecture at Work, 4th Edition, M.M. Lankhorst et al, Springer-Verlag, Berlin; 2017.
- Enterprise Architecture Development and Modeling, M.M. Lankhorst, H. van Drunen, Via Nova Architectura, March 21, 2007.
- Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture, J.F. Sowa,
J.A. Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, 1992:31(3);590 616.
- ISO/IEC 42010:2011: Systems and Software Engineering – Architecture Description; refer to: www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=50508.
- TOGAF® and ArchiMate®: A Future Together, H. Jonkers, E. Proper, M. Turner, White Paper (W192), published by The Open Group, November 2009; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w192.htm.
- Using the ArchiMate® Language with UML®, White Paper (W134), published by The Open Group, September 2013; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w134.htm.
- Using the TOGAF® 9.1 Architecture Content Framework with the ArchiMate® 2.0 Modeling Language, White Paper (W129), published by The Open Group, July 2012; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w129.htm.
Ed Walters is a Senior Consultant in Business Systems Development at QA Ltd., a UK-based IT Training, Education, and Consultancy company. Ed has a background in solution development and business analysis with experience gained principally in the manufacturing, transportation, and logistics industries. In recent years Ed has become progressively involved with training, coaching, and mentoring clients in the use of Enterprise Architecture, especially Business Architecture, and lately Data Architecture. Ed’s involvement with the TOGAF® standard goes back to Version 8,
and with the ArchiMate® standard from the earliest days.
The original authors of this White Paper were:
Iver Band is a practicing Enterprise Architect and a developer and communicator of Enterprise Architecture standards and methods. At Cambia Health Solutions, he leads a team of architects focused on externally facing digital experiences. Iver is also the Director of Enterprise and Solution Architecture for EA Principals, a training and consulting firm, for which he works with clients, develops curriculum materials, and edits the EAPJ.org website. Iver represents EA Principals in The Open Group, where he is the elected Vice-Chair of the ArchiMate Forum. As Vice- Chair, Iver has led development of several Open Group White Papers. He is TOGAF 9 and ArchiMate 2 Certified, a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), a Certified Information Professional (CIP), an AHIP Information Technology Professional, and a Prosci Certified Change Consultant.
Henk Jonkers is a senior research consultant, involved in BiZZdesign’s innovations in the areas of Enterprise Architecture and engineering. He participates in multi- party research projects, contributes to training courses, and performs consultancy assignments. Previously, as a member of scientific staff at an applied IT research institute, he was involved in research projects on business process modeling and analysis, EA, SOA, and model-driven development. He was one of the main developers of the ArchiMate language and an author of the ArchiMate 1.0 and 3.0 Specifications, and is actively involved in the activities of The Open Group
Erik Proper is deputy director of the IT for Innovative Services department at the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology in Luxembourg. He also holds a chair in Information Systems at the Radboud University Nijmegen. He leads the Enterprise Engineering research team involving researchers from these two institutions. Erik received his Master's degree from the University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands in May 1990, and received his PhD (with distinction) from the same University in April 1994. Erik was one of the initiators of the ArchiMate project and co-author of the ArchiMate 1.0 Specification, and is a former Vice-Chair of The Open Group ArchiMate Forum. He is also TOGAF 8 and 9 Certified.
Dick Quartel is a Senior Research Consultant at BiZZdesign. In this role he contributes to the development and improvement of BiZZdesign's products and services, is involved in research projects, supervises MSc students and interns, and performs consultancy assignments. In addition, he is an author of many scientific and professional publications, and an author of the ArchiMate 3.0 Specification.
Previously, he worked as a Senior Researcher at Novay (formerly Telematica Instituut), where he acted as researcher and project manager and contributed to the definition and acquisition of research projects, and as an Assistant Professor at the University of Twente in the areas of distributed systems design, protocol design and implementation, and middleware systems.
Marc Lankhorst is Managing Consultant and Business Design Evangelist at BiZZdesign. He is responsible for market development, consulting, and coaching on digital business design and Enterprise Architecture, and spreading the word on the ArchiMate® standard for Enterprise Architecture modeling. His expertise and interests range from Enterprise and IT Architecture and business process management to agile methods, portfolio management, and digital business design. In the past, he has managed the ArchiMate R&D project, a major cooperation between several partners from government, industry, and academia which developed the initial version of the ArchiMate language, and he currently leads the ArchiMate development team of The Open Group.
Mike Turner is a practicing Enterprise Architect working within EY’s EMEIA Centre of Excellence for Business and IT Transformation. In this role, Mike assists clients in the definition, execution, and governance of strategic, technology-enabled change initiatives. Mike was the development lead for the TOGAF 9 standard and a former Chair of the TOGAF Adoption Strategies Work Group, which examines approaches for organizations to incorporate the TOGAF standard into their operating model. Based in the UK, Mike has worked with a range of leading organizations across a variety of industries including media, high-tech, life sciences, automotive,
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