A Paper by:
Andrew Josey, The Open Group
Copyright © 2018, The Open Group
The TOGAF standard, a standard of The Open Group, is a proven Enterprise Architecture methodology and framework used by the world’s leading organizations to improve business efficiency. Put simply, it is a standard approach for assisting in the acceptance, production, use, and maintenance of Enterprise Architectures. It is based on an iterative process model supported by best practices and a re-usable set of existing architectural assets.
The TOGAF standard is developed and maintained by members of The Open Group, working within the Architecture Forum. The original development of TOGAF Version 1 in 1995 was based on the US Department of Defense Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM). Starting from this sound foundation, The Open Group Architecture Forum has developed successive versions of the TOGAF standard and published each one on The Open Group public website.
Accompanying the standard is the TOGAF Library. The TOGAF Library is a reference library containing guidelines, templates, patterns, and other forms of reference material to accelerate the creation of new architectures for the enterprise.
The TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, published in April 2018, is an update providing additional guidance, introducing structural changes to support the TOGAF Library (an extensive collection of reference material), correcting errors, and removing obsolete content. The TOGAF standard can be used for developing a broad range of different Enterprise Architectures. It complements, and can be used in conjunction with, other frameworks that are more focused on specific deliverables for particular vertical sectors such as Government, Telecommunications, Manufacturing, Defense, and Finance. A key part of the TOGAF standard is the method – the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) – for developing an Enterprise Architecture that addresses business needs.
The TOGAF documentation consists of the TOGAF standard, and a portfolio of guidance material, known as the TOGAF Library, to support the practical application of the standard.
The TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, is divided into six parts, as summarized in Table 1.
Table 1: Structure of the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2
|This part provides a high-level introduction to the key concepts of Enterprise Architecture and, in particular, to the TOGAF approach. It contains the definitions of terms used throughout the standard.|
Architecture Development Method
|This part is the core of the TOGAF framework. It describes the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) – a step-by-step approach to developing an Enterprise Architecture.|
ADM Guidelines and Techniques
|This part contains a collection of guidelines and techniques available for use in applying the TOGAF approach and the TOGAF ADM. Additional guidelines and techniques are also in the TOGAF Library.|
Architecture Content Framework
|This part describes the TOGAF content framework, including a structured metamodel for architectural artifacts, the use of re-usable Architecture Building Blocks (ABBs), and an overview of typical architecture deliverables.|
Enterprise Continuum and Tools
|This part discusses appropriate taxonomies and tools to categorize and store the outputs of architecture activity within an enterprise.|
Architecture Capability Framework
|This part discusses the organization, processes, skills, roles, and responsibilities required to establish and operate an architecture practice within an enterprise.|
The structure of the TOGAF Library is summarized in Table 2.
Table 2: Structure of the TOGAF Library
|Broadly applicable information relating to the subject of the TOGAF framework or Enterprise Architecture.|
Generic Guidelines and Techniques
|Information describing architecture styles and how the TOGAF framework and Enterprise Architecture can be adapted to exploit the characteristics of a more specific context.|
Industry-Specific Guidance and Techniques
|Information describing how the TOGAF framework and Enterprise Architecture can be applied to meet the specific needs of a vertical industry segment.|
Organization-Specific Guidance and Techniques
|Information describing how the TOGAF framework and Enterprise Architecture have been applied to meet the needs of specific enterprises.|
Included in the TOGAF Library to support the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2 is a set of supporting guidance documents known as the TOGAF Series Guides. The TOGAF Series Guides contain detailed guidance on how to use the TOGAF framework, and are expected to be the most rapidly developing part of the TOGAF documentation set. While the TOGAF framework documented in the standard is expected to be long-lived and stable, guidance on the use of the TOGAF framework can be industry, architectural style, purpose, and problem-specific.
The current TOGAF Series Guides include:
- TOGAF® Series Guide: The TOGAF® Leader’s Guide to Establishing and Evolving an EA Capability
- TOGAF® Series Guide: A Practitioners’ Approach to Developing Enterprise Architecture Following the TOGAF® ADM
- TOGAF® Series Guide: Value Streams
- TOGAF® Series Guide: Using the TOGAF® Framework to Define and Govern Service-Oriented Architectures
- TOGAF® Series Guide: Business Scenarios
- TOGAF® Series Guide: The TOGAF® Technical Reference Model (TRM)
- TOGAF® Series Guide: The TOGAF® Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model (III-RM): An Architected Approach to Boundaryless Information Flow™
- TOGAF® Series Guide: Business Capabilities*
- TOGAF® Series Guide: Business Models*
- TOGAF® Series Guide: Architecture Project Management*
The TOGAF Library is available at www.opengroup.org/togaf-library.
The contents of the TOGAF standard reflect the structure and content of an Architecture Capability within an enterprise, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: TOGAF Content Overview
Central to the TOGAF framework is the Architecture Development Method (ADM), documented in Part II of the standard. The Architecture Capability (documented in Part VI of the standard) operates the method. The method is supported by a number of guidelines and techniques (documented in Part III of the standard, and the TOGAF Library). This produces content to be stored in the repository (documented in Part IV of the standard), which is classified according to the Enterprise Continuum (documented in Part V of the standard). The repository can be initially populated with the TOGAF Reference Models and other reference materials (documented in the TOGAF Library).
The ADM describes how to derive an organization-specific Enterprise Architecture that addresses business requirements. The ADM is the major component of the TOGAF framework and provides guidance for architects on a number of levels:
- It provides a number of architecture development phases (Business Architecture, Information Systems Architectures, Technology Architecture) in a cycle, as an overall process template for architecture development activity
- It provides a narrative of each architecture phase, describing the phase in terms of objectives, approach, inputs, steps, and outputs; the inputs and outputs sections provide a definition of the architecture content structure and deliverables (a detailed description of the phase inputs and phase outputs is given in the Architecture Content Framework)
- It provides cross-phase summaries that cover requirements management
ADM Guidelines and Techniques provides a number of guidelines and techniques to support the application of the ADM. The guidelines include adapting the ADM to deal with a number of usage scenarios, including different process styles – the use of iteration, and applying the ADM across the Architecture Landscape. There is also a high-level description of how to use the TOGAF framework with different architectural styles using SOA as an example. The techniques support specific tasks within the ADM (such as capability-based planning, defining principles, gap analysis, migration planning, risk management, stakeholder management, etc.). Additional guidelines and techniques are also available in the TOGAF Library (for example, guidance on the business scenarios technique).
The Architecture Content Framework provides a detailed model of architectural work products, including deliverables, artifacts within deliverables, and the Architecture Building Blocks (ABBs) that artifacts represent.
The Enterprise Continuum provides a model for structuring a virtual repository and provides methods for classifying architecture and solution artifacts, showing how the different types of artifacts evolve, and how they can be leveraged and re-used. This is based on architectures and solutions (models, patterns, architecture descriptions, etc.) that exist within the enterprise and in the industry at large, and which the enterprise has collected for use in the development of its architectures.
The Architecture Capability Framework is a set of resources, guidelines, templates, background information, etc. provided to help the architect establish an architecture practice within an organization.
Andrew Josey, The Open Group
Andrew Josey is VP Standards & Certification overseeing all certification and testing programs of The Open Group. He also manages the standards process for The Open Group. At The Open Group, he has led many standards development projects including specification and certification development for the ArchiMate®, IT4IT™, TOGAF®, Open FAIR™, POSIX®, and UNIX® programs. He is a member of the IEEE, USENIX, and the Association of Enterprise Architects (AEA). He holds an MSc in Computer Science from University College London.
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